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斯大林统治下的工人反抗运动:车间里的阶级和革命(介绍)

2020.08.21 13:35 irracio 斯大林统治下的工人反抗运动:车间里的阶级和革命(介绍)

斯大林统治下的工人反抗运动:车间里的阶级和革命(介绍)


作者:Jeffrey J. Rossman
1932年4月11日,苏联工会中央委员会秘书Nikolai Shvernik,通知斯大林一许多主要工业地区的工人都处于一种反叛状态,抗议最近严重的食品短缺,以及本月1日在全国除最特权的商店以外所有商店实行的定量配给大幅削减政策。在伊万诺沃工业区(IIR)、伏尔加河下游地区、乌拉尔、西伯利亚西部、乌克兰和白俄罗斯,工人们拒绝操作机器,谴责食品供应官员,围攻食品储存设施,公开抗议新的“饥饿口粮”,逃往传闻面包供应不足的城镇。Shvernik没有必要提供最严重的动乱的细节——这是一波为期一周的罢工浪潮,在伊万诺沃六个地区的工厂城镇,两万名纺织工人举行了偏向暴力的罢工,因为斯大林派来策划镇压的官员——党的第二指挥官卡冈诺维奇——很快就会提交现场报告。为了强调危机的严重性,Shvernik最后发出了警告。“在上述所有案例中,”他告诉那位领导人他的政策是问题的根源,“反革命分子和托洛茨基分子试图利用工人供应方面的暂时困难。”【1】
1932年4月的劳资纠纷暴露了布尔什维克宣称要建立一个社会主义工人国家的荒谬之处,斯大林坚持不让媒体间接提及此事。然而,在第九届工会代表大会的大厅里,流言蜚语却不可忽视。第九届工会代表大会于同月巧合地在莫斯科召开。在中央控制委员会主席Ian Rudzutak在大会上承认苏联工人“沉浸在恶劣的情绪中”之后,卡冈诺维奇立即将危机归因于新工人的“小资产阶级”心态以及老工人中持续存在的“资产阶级影响”。Shvernik提供了更多意识形态上令人满意的分析,他把责任推给无能的地方官员,还有大会的审计委员会,报告说“阶级外来分子”最近已经渗透到劳动力中,以便“进行他们的颠覆性工作”。【2】
尽管这给了代表们回到各自企业后可以使用的谈话要点,但这些废话不太可能说服他们中的许多人。问题不在于从讲台上滚落下来的解释相互矛盾,但代表们从自己的亲身经历中了解到的,就像演讲者从堆积在他们桌子上的绝顶机密报告中了解到的一样:生活水平的空前崩溃在劳动阶层中播下了痛苦的种子。
这种情况引起了党内的关注,许多党员对斯大林“自上而下”的革命给人民带来的暴力和痛苦感到厌恶。【3】没有什么比《斯大林与无产阶级专政的危机》更能表达这种担忧了,这二百页的文章——作者是莫斯科布尔什维克官员Martemian Riutin,提供了当前领导的灼热的控诉:
冒险的工业化进程,包括蓝领和白领的工资大幅下降、难以忍受的显性和隐性税收、(市场)通货膨胀、(国营合作社)涨价和(货币)贬值;冒险的集体化伴随着难以置信的暴力、恐怖和去富农化。最后,通过强制征用(粮食)的方式征用农村粮食,已经导致整个国家陷入了最深刻的危机,使广大人民陷入可怕的贫困,使农村和城市都陷入饥饿。
近年来,共产主义者和共青团成员参加的农民起义在整个苏联不间断地蔓延。尽管野蛮的恐怖、逮捕、解雇和挑衅,工人们的罢工还是在这里、那里爆发。
为了摧毁无产阶级专政,抹黑列宁主义的名誉,即使是最大胆、最聪明的奸夫也想不出比斯大林及其集团的领导更好的办法。【4】
1932年4月,这个行业经历了最严重的劳资纠纷,来自这个行业的证据证实了Riutin的观察的正确性。俄罗斯纺织工人早就断定,共产党背叛了社会主义、苏维埃政权和十月革命的理想。反过来,这个结论是基于他们自己“自上而下”的革命的创伤经历。

斯大林的激进计划

纺织业作为社会经济中最大、最赚钱的部门,它专注于生产供消费的商品,这使得它在布尔什维克价值体系中处于被忽视的继女地位——在第一个五年计划(FFYP, 1928-1932)期间,苏联纺织业只有一个基本任务:生产出大量盈余用于重工业的发展。【5】
布料的贡献为3.5亿卢布,相当于该计划对工业资本投资的四分之一以上,几乎相当于该工业全年总产值的全部,几乎是其固定资本存量价值的两倍。根据最高经济委员会(Vesenkha)的说法,这一数额可以累积起来——如果它真的能积累起来的话——只能通过增加13%的劳动力规模,削减31%的生产成本,提高86%的布料年产量,并将劳动生产率提高一倍。【6】
虽然它是在几个月的时间里以随意的方式设计出来的,但实现这些目标的战略是相对直接的。第一,通过在国内采购原材料,第二,通过提高开发速度和将生产要素的成本降至最低来积累节省。实际上,这意味着停止在国际市场上购买原棉,依靠中亚的新集体农场来弥补差额;通过降低纱线密度和回收废料,使现有的原棉供应进一步发展;提高工人和机器的生产率;尽量推迟资本投资;限制工资和劳动力规模的增长。工人生产力的提高,反过来,将通过增加工作量,压缩工作时间表,并按照泰勒主义路线重新组织生产来完成。【7】至于提高布料的产量,这不仅取决于生产力的提高,还取决于几家新工厂的开业,更重要的是,要将现有工厂从两班生产快速转变为三班生产。【8】
与产生该计划的计划一样,用于纺织业的强制资本积累策略也遭遇了致命的缺陷。首先,它过于雄心勃勃。与世界主要工业国家相比,苏联经济落后——事实上,正是为了克服这种落后状态,革命才从一开始就“自上而下”地展开——即使是美国和德国,也无法在五年内成功地实现对其更加富裕和先进的纺织业如此深远的变革。其次,该战略缺乏内部一致性:由于技术原因,一些目标只有以牺牲其他目标为代价才能实现,行业专家却能理解这些技术原因,而政党领导人却不能。例如,要素生产率将不可避免地受到以下因素的影响:以低质量的国产原棉取代高质量的进口原棉;螺纹密度的降低;资本投资的延期;引进24小时生产;而且,至少在短期内,采用了不熟悉的,虽然理论上优越的,泰勒式生产方法。最后,该战略依赖于一个有缺陷的假设——具体来说,每一项措施都会产生预期的结果——这导致在一项必然包含大量两者的承诺中没有犯错或失败的余地。可以肯定的是,没有人会质疑党的假设,即集体化将通过使面包变得廉价而丰富,从而对工人生产率和生产成本产生有益影响。但是,集体化产生了与预期相反的效果,加剧而不是消除食品短缺和价格上涨,同样,针对纺织业采取的一些措施,如降低纱线密度和泰勒式的劳动重组,也起到了同样的作用。至于战略中有效的元素,例如24小时生产,往往达不到预期。
阻碍纺织业实现最高经济委员会(Supreme Economic Council)为其设定的目标的,是该战略的缺陷,而不是未能实现其各个组成部分。事实上,实施是迅速和积极的。1928年1月启动了一项紧急计划,将工厂转换为三级生产,同时提高工作负荷。同年,两家新棉纺厂投产,国内原棉产量增长了14%,进口量下降了11%。从1929年4月开始,以突击劳动和社会主义竞争运动的形式,开始了新一轮的劳动密集。然而,在对这些活动的判决出来之前,为了降低生产成本,成千上万的工人被派到了劳动交易所。【9】同样是在1929年,三家新棉纺厂投产,国内原棉产量上升了5%,进口同样下降了21%。1930 -1931年的主要运动是按照泰勒主义的路线进行劳动重组,虽然这一时期也出现了四家新工厂,国内原棉产量增长了28%,原棉进口下降了53%,与之前的裁员浪潮相反的是,劳动力规模增加了7%,这对失业的企业来说是一个罕见的好消息。【10】
到1932年,生产要素已经枯竭,不仅不能在纺织业发起新的运动,而且最近实施的一些运动——如泰勒生产线上的生产重组——也不得不被废除。与此同时,原棉进口进一步下降了55%,而与此同时,国内原棉产量却出现了不祥的持平。1932年12月31日,当五年计划接近尾声时,一份资产负债表显示,纺织业远未达到“狂欢计划”时期设定的目标——甚至比其他主要经济部门还少。【11】布料的产量和设备的生产率不但没有上升,反而下降了。即使是少数几项成就也没有达到预期:该行业的就业人数攀升了近11%;劳动生产率——至少在棉纺厂——增长了三分之二,而不是翻倍;国内原棉产量并没有增长166%,只是增长了一半多。更糟糕的是,纺织工人本应获得的红利未能兑现:实际工资非但没有增加三分之二,反而减少了一半;而那些确实进行的资本投资——比如新建磨坊的开工和装备——往往由于规划不当而被浪费掉。【12】
尽管布料的产量不可避免地低于最高经济委员会的要求,纺织工人的负担几乎不能更大。在工厂层面,党的激进的强制资本积累政策导致了:工作量的不断增加;为工资自相残杀,工资拖欠迅速增长;原材料严重短缺,因此工厂突然停工;而设备的迅速恶化,也就导致了工作条件的恶化。与此同时,布尔什维克同时对农民和市场发动战争,结果并没有像斯大林承诺的那样产生大量廉价食品,而是像右翼反对派预测的那样,出现了面包的长期短缺和猖獗的通货膨胀。【13】可以肯定的是,在苏联270万工厂工人中,几乎没有人能逃脱“来自上层”的革命负担。但是,由于他们作为工业化的副资助者这一不受欢迎的角色,他们中受雇于纺织业的716,400人不得不承担最沉重的负担。【14】

工人们的反对

俄罗斯纺织工人如何应对这一前所未有的局面?简而言之,是激烈的抵抗——一个有很大争议的术语,在本书中,“抵抗”指的是工人个人或集体的努力,改变、破坏或废除由地方、地区和/或中央当局实施的政策或做法,并迫使其履行被普遍认为是他们对工业劳动力的义务。纺织工人在五年计划中常见的抵制形式——最关键时期的“社会主义建设”含大规模示威,面包暴动、罢工、经济放缓,工业破坏、工厂进行的颠覆性的演讲,对当地政府的暴力行为,书面抗议党领导人,匿名传单,和想象的成分和颠覆性的作品流通(主要、歌曲和诗歌)。触发这种阻力的是上述资源提取策略的特定组成部分(例如,工作量的提高和劳动力的重组)以及该战略不可避免的意外后果(例如,拖欠工资、粮食短缺,以及由此产生的更广泛的“上层”革命。
尽管所有的劳动阶层都参与了抵制行动,但处于集体行动最前列的是那些承受着强制资本积累负担最沉重的基本工种:纺纱工和织布工。通常情况下,他们的领导者——也就是那些带头采取抵抗行动的人,以及那些抗议者选择表达他们的要求并与当局谈判的人——他们都是三四十岁的老工人,受到同事们的尊敬,他们各自的履历中都有一些成分,比如曾在红军服役,或者是被选为城市苏维埃的代表,这表明他们对苏联政权有着根本的忠诚。【15】这些领导人中有少数是前无政府主义者、孟什维克或社会主义者;现在或以前是共产党党员的人数略多;但值得注意的是,其中大多数都没有任何政治归属。在他们的队伍中,最突出的是女性纺纱工,男性和女性编织工,以及数量不成比例的男性多架纺纱工,编织监督工和机械师。【16】
尽管集体行动往往会导致来自上级的让步,如立即分配面包或补发欠薪,或修改或废除劳动密集型措施,但这些都付出了高昂的代价:随着时间的推移,报复性的解雇和逮捕剥夺了工人们最有效率的领导人。但是,正如来自下层的抵抗——至少在最初阶段——未能阻止工人阶级的悲惨化进程一样,来自上层的压制也未能避免大规模的集体行动。1932年4月,纺织工人为维护自己的福祉——实际上是生存——而进行的斗争达到了高潮,当时伊瓦诺沃工业区有两万人举行了罢工。【17】尽管这场叛乱以流血和镇压告终,但它也促使莫斯科对苏联工厂的多方面危机做出回应。
对斯大林革命的“自上而下”抵抗是俄罗斯纺织工人的道德经济。道德经济是由e·p·汤普森提出的一个概念,用帕德瑞克·肯尼(Padraic Kenney)的简洁表述,它指的是“一套价值观——”:一般接受平等主义、社会正义和基本集体权利的理念,这些理念植根于一个社区(道德社区)的文化中,能够对那些社区认为破坏了其维持生活水平能力的人采取集体的、通常是自发的行动。”【18】俄罗斯纺织业工人的道德经济表现在纺织业革命期间的无数反抗行动中。例如,它促使2000名Sereda纺纱工举行罢工,尽管工作负担增加,但他们的实得工资却下降了;1300名代表出席伊万诺沃市苏维埃特别会议,威胁在面包短缺威胁生命的情况下采取集体行动;800名维丘加织工拒绝社会主义竞争(劳动强度的一种形式),认为无法忍受其资本主义“剥削性”;600名纳沃洛基工人在被要求为国家牺牲半个月的工资后,进行了大规模抗议;6个工业城镇爆发了总罢工,以回应“饥饿”口粮的实施。总的来说,这些行为标志着对一项违反劳动阶层价值观的发展计划的拒绝,该计划本应让他们受益。
在俄罗斯纺织工人的道德经济中,隐含着一种对工人阶级和党的关系的契约理解。1928年,一位普通工人精确地定义了为“十月革命的社会契约”(October Revolution’s social contract)的术语:“我们给予你,你也给予我们。”【19】换句话说,劳动力愿意牺牲在苏联权力的名义下按照党规定的方式牺牲——至少在没有战争的情况下是这样的——条件是:设定一个最低标准,生活水平永远不会下降;设立一个最高标准,工作负担永远不会上升。当党在1928年停止履行革命的社会契约时,纺织工人以同样的方式回应。
尽管它在党的道路上设置了无数障碍,但俄罗斯纺织工人的道德经济中注入了对苏联价值观的某种理解。这是一个悖论,但并非巧合。从工厂的角度来看,“苏维埃力量”并不是指政党集体或斯大林个人的独裁,而是指消除工人的痛苦:他们的饥饿、屈辱、贫穷和剥削。鉴于对社会正义的坚持是他们道德经济的核心,俄国纺织工人在十月革命中——实际上,在他们的革命中——找到了所有他们需要的理由来反对导致他们贫穷的政策。【20】
这一举动使得工人们的反抗具有颠覆性。这句话不可能被误解,因为它经常被精确地表述为:布尔什维克背叛了革命,背弃了工人阶级,嘲弄了苏维埃的力量。从政府的角度来看,那些提出这些主张的人是“反苏联的”,因此根据臭名昭著的《刑法》第58条和第59条,他们将受到起诉。【21】但是客观地说,那些带头抵抗的人并没有反苏的意思:那些把自己看作是真正的“苏维埃力量的捍卫者”的男人和女人,他们把自己的主张建立在“1917年10月的口号和誓言”上,他们提出的问题尖锐地突显出官方意识形态的光辉承诺与日常生活的严酷现实之间的巨大鸿沟。【22】在没有战争的情况下,由工人们掌权、工人们为此付出了巨大牺牲的自称为工人的国家,怎么可能连面包都供应不了呢?一个削弱工人活力、破坏他们生活水平的计划,怎么可能与社会主义的理想相容呢?这些问题凸显了这场斗争的利害关系:不仅仅是一块面包,80卢布的工资,或者两台额外的织机,而是对十月革命的所有权,以及对革命结果做出最终判断的权利。
如果工人的反抗是基于特定的道德经济和革命的特定概念化,要求集体行动的呼吁是用阶级的语言表达的。这些呼吁的有效性强调了五年计划中最重要的社会话语现象之一:阶级的重新出现“作为一个象征系统,[工人]通过它感知社会世界并对其采取行动。”【23】重点不是阶级突然取代了其他身份类别,如性别、年龄、种族、地域和行业;事实上,这些和其他的意义系统以复杂的方式继续共存、互动和相互渗透。更确切地说,正是这个阶层,在经历了十年的沉寂之后,通过赋予苦难以意义(关键是促进了反抗),重新获得了人们的喜爱。苦难是“从上而下”的革命不可避免的遗产,即使不是承诺。
正如纺织工人坚持自己对十月革命的理解一样,他们也形成了一种不同于布尔什维克的阶级语言(尽管受到了其的深刻影响)。【24】他们的语言是一种混合语言,从官方意识形态(即马列主义)和“使用他们”民粹主义(“深深植根于俄罗斯文化”)的非官方话语中挪用了象征内容。【25】基于(受苦的)工人和(剥削的)精英之间的基本对立,阶级语言在许多方面显示了它的威力:在布尔什维克发现很难(如果不是不可能的话)渗透到实体空间(首先是工厂盥洗室和吸烟室)内的对立文化复兴;新精英阶层是工人劳动的受益者,是工人利益被定义为对抗的"他者"在劳动阶层(例如,男性看守者和女性织工)之间结成联盟,他们之间的关系一直是长期对立的;最重要的是,经常诉诸集体行动来捍卫被认为是共同利益的东西。【26】
虽然阶级的界限既不是静止不动的,也不是不可逾越的,但是阶级的界限在生产方面已经很明确了。一般来说,任何出身于工业或农业下层的人,只要在工厂工作了很长一段时间,而且在苏联政权下从未被剥夺过公民权利,都可以合理地宣称自己的社会身份是“工人”。值得注意的是,“工人阶级”还包括这些人的家属,尤其是子女。相比之下,工业劳动力中有三个狭窄的阶层往往被排除在外,或被视为"他者":农民,他们不是当地社区的成员,但为在工业中谋得职位而从遥远地区迁移过来;季节性工人;和“离婚者”(那些因为阶级出身而被剥夺了公民权利的人)。【27】记住阶级界限是很重要的,因为在生产点上的反抗是由对谁是——并不是——“工人”的普遍理解形成的。【28】
由于受扶养的人被包括在“工人阶级”的通俗定义中,阶级的语言被灌输了家族的含义。一次又一次,男工人和女工人“从上面”谴责革命,并威胁要撤回他们的劳动,因为“孩子们正在挨饿”。(不是所有孩子,而是工人的孩子。)如果说阶级语言的合法性源于十月革命,那么它的道德力量则因工人阶级家庭的无情祈求而得到增强。【29】
考虑到纺织工人的道德经济价值——更不用说1917年惊人的阶级意识展示和车间里的集体行动——人们可能会预测,1928年开始的政策驱动的对生活水平的攻击将会导致社会动荡。那么,为什么普遍的假设是,俄罗斯工人对斯大林的革命“自上而下”的反应是无效的抱怨,冷漠,甚至是热情?为了回答这个问题和相关问题,我们把注意力转向史学。
就苏联工人而言,“从上而下”的革命历史是从几个角度来书写的。在极权主义模式的全盛时期(20世纪50年代和60年代),焦点是国家——具体地说,是它对劳动力施加控制的各种尝试——普遍的假设是,工人太过分散,即使他们对政权怀有不满,也无法参与集体行动。尽管在对国家社会关系的解释上比批评家所允许的更为微妙,但在极权主义范式下工作的学者们对工业化在生产方面的经验几乎没有什么可说的。【30】
20世纪70年代,当社会历史学家在这一领域掀起风暴时,工人就成为了认真关注的对象。卢因(Moshe Lewin)是那次攻击的领导者之一,他并不排斥极权主义模式,甚至不排斥其中的细微差别。对他来说,关于五年计划的关键问题在于,它对社会造成了极大的破坏,而且荒谬的是,它还让启动它的政府感到沮丧。随着数以百万计的农民涌入城市寻找工作,随着工人从一个糟糕的工作地点跳槽到另一个工作地点,劳动力流失率急剧上升,布尔什维克发现自己正在领导一个“流沙社会”,在这个社会中,“所有的社会群体和阶级都部分或全部被‘摧毁’,精神错乱。”由此产生的社会身份的分裂,在劳动大军所在的车间最为严重:“既不是一个阶级,也不是一群人,而是一个群体”——归根到底,这是“容易控制的”。但是,如果说“自上而下”的革命的一个影响是让工人阶级失去了方向感,从而使他们变得“被动和无防御能力”,那么另一个影响是产生了如此大的混乱,以至于那些处于权力顶峰的人再也不能在基层产生结果。其结果是:大规模地诉诸强制,将国家转变为“利维坦”。【31】
卢因含蓄地接受了极权主义的范式,或者至少接受了一个国家对一个日益原子化的社会的人力和物质资源拥有完全主权的模式,但所谓的修正主义者却拒绝接受这种模式。与列文不同的是,这些学者倾向于对工人及其所处的环境进行细致的研究。其结果是,一些有影响力但有时也有争议的研究强调了国家政策的综合功能和官方意识形态的动员能力。通过摆脱极权主义模式,修正主义者有效地强调了斯大林革命“从上而下”的社会基础,以及斯大林主义本身。尽管如此,他们倾向于关注劳动力的一个狭窄阶层——那些接受和/或实质上受益于国家政策的人——这引发了对其研究结果更广泛适用性的质疑。【32】
即便是在修正主义者挖掘工人的经验时,唐纳德·菲尔策尔(Donald Filtzer)对车间的解释却大相径庭。这些工人是被布尔什维克成功动员起来进行“社会主义建设”的。他从托洛茨基主义者的角度写道,工人们积极抵制革命,“从上而下”,因为伴随革命而来的是有意破坏他们阶级团结的劳工政策。虽然他对原子化的强调从极权主义模式中获得了灵感,或者看起来是这样的,但菲尔策尔最后强调了国家控制的局限——就像他有时被归为一类的修正主义者一样。在他看来,由于意识形态的原因,政府坚持要消除失业,这给工人提供了他们用来控制劳动过程的杠杆——对经济造成了灾难性的后果。尽管菲尔策尔认为斯大林主义的劳工政策旨在破坏工人阶级的团结——毕竟,在新经济政策(NEP, 1921-1927)时代几乎没有这种团结的证据——他关于工人反抗“上层”革命的主张是具有突破性的。【33】
在菲尔策尔和修正主义者将这个领域超越了极权主义模式十年之后,斯蒂芬·科特金(Stephen Kotkin)以他对钢铁城市Magnitogorsk的不朽研究进入了辩论。受到米歇尔·福柯的话语在现代西方社会研究和皮埃尔·布迪厄的实践理论,科特金努力证明斯大林主义是一个“文明”出现的复杂和不可预测的相互作用,一方面,国家的“大战略”,另一方面,适应和生存的手段阐述了工人们的日常生活。在科特金看来,支持的抵抗范式与这一时期无关,因为意识形态上的“不信仰”是“不可能的”,苏联身份是“不可避免的”。原因有三:第一,苏联的价值观广受欢迎;二是由于社会的封闭性和国家对媒体的控制,使得人们无法选择不同的观点;第三,因为通过必要的掌握“居住地的小策略”——比如如何“说布尔什维克话语”——促进了个人对政权及其目标的认同。【34】科特金的研究经过了激烈的争论和出色的执行,一直很有影响力。的确,它激发了一批新学者将一个重要问题置于他们议程的中心:身份建构过程是如何在日常生活中运作,从而将个人与苏联政权及其价值观捆绑在一起的?
最近受科特金启发的研究中,最引人注目的是约亨·赫尔贝克(Jochen Hellbeck)对日记作者的研究,比如在集体化前夕抛弃了自己乌克兰家乡村庄的年轻人斯捷潘·波德鲁布尼(Stepan Podlubnyi)。在莫斯科定居后,波德鲁布尼努力克服自己出身于“阶级敌人”之子的污名——他的父亲被镇压并被驱逐——他在一家印刷厂工作,考入一所医学院,成为共青团成员。波德鲁布尼在20世纪30年代用自己的日记来衡量自己在将自己转变为“新苏联人”方面走了多远。通过对波德鲁布尼的日记进行深入而有理论依据的分析,赫尔贝克完成了一项非凡的壮举,揭示了科特金假设但从未证明的斯大林时期自我生成的身份建构过程。然而,赫尔贝克的阅读说明了“苏联的社会认同体系是如何渗透到个人的个人领域的”,甚至把一个被贬化的农民的儿子变成了一个聪明的“斯大林制度的载体”,它未能证明“大多数人甚至缺乏表达异议的最基本先决条件:评估斯大林政权表现的外部参考框架。”【35】
赫尔贝克曾因基于狭隘而统一的资料来源而对一个复杂而迅速变化的社会作出概括而受到批评,但他的工作的根本缺点是概念上的。赫尔贝克断言,苏联本身仅仅是“革命的结果”。【36】这种假设除了在心理上站不住脚之外,还把个人从他或她所处的复杂社会环境中解放出来,而苏联国家尽管有其全部意图,却从未完全垄断过这种社会环境。人们可以合理地提出这样一个问题:布尔什维克在什么时候试图创造一个新的苏联人变得如此有效,以至于抹去了替代的参照系,比如旧政权下的生活记忆,或者替代的身份支点,比如忏悔、社区和家庭?虽然赫尔贝克并不否认极权主义控制的局限性,但他有疑问地坚持认为,十月革命彻底破坏了意义的其他来源,使得个人别无选择,只能用国家规定的方式来定义自己。尽管这一假设被90年代末出现的“新极权主义”学派的其他成员所认同——赫尔贝克是创始成员之一,它强调了苏联政权垄断身份建构过程的能力就会让过去极权主义学派的持证成员(比如Fainsod)停下来。【37】
尽管有资历,但希拉•菲茨帕特里克(Sheila Fitzpatrick)认同这种有问题的假设。作为斯大林时代最多产、最具影响力的历史学家之一,菲茨帕特里克在最近的著作中指出,20世纪20年代和30年代社会认同的一个关键类别之所以成为社会认同,只是因为布尔什维克让它成为了社会认同。在“一个阶级结构薄弱、社会认同危机重重的国家”掌权后,这个世界上第一个无产阶级独裁政权发现,它只有通过唤醒沉睡的、在意识形态上至关重要的阶级概念,才能“区分盟友和敌人”。坚持认为个人在人口普查发现,投票记录,和护照“工人”,“白领阶层的工人,”“资产阶级”,“地主”,等等,然后调节获得稀缺的物质和社会商品分类等的基础上,党把课堂变成了“一个基本类别的苏联公民身份。”然而,在落后和社会动荡的情况下,马克思主义范畴的部署导致了它们的转变:不是根据个人在生产关系中的位置来定义他们,在苏联的背景下,阶级的作用类似于革命前的财产类别,根据他们与国家的关系来定义他们。就其本身而言,这一论点是有说服力的,但菲茨帕特里克错误地认为,阶级认同只能有两种形式:一种是有机地从(资本主义的)生产关系中出现的马克思主义,另一种是由国家社会主义政权从上面强加给我们的“归因”的。【38】
菲茨帕特里克的结论是,布尔什维克只是通过摧毁阶级来拯救阶级,而其他大多数社会历史学家则追随卢因的脚步,得出结论说,他们只是摧毁了阶级。与菲茨帕特里克不同的是,这些学者既没有忽视在生产点上的身份建构过程,也没有忽视阶级在不适合(从马克思主义的观点来看)条件下作为解释经验的框架发挥作用的能力。然而,他们同意菲茨帕特里克的观点,即阶级作为社会身份的一个类别,在其传统的化身中——也就是说他是不存在的——在十月革命后缺乏效力。【39】
他们的论点是这样的。在1917年秋天达到顶峰后,俄罗斯车间里的阶级意识很快就被性别、种族、世代、车间、工艺和地区的分裂所取代。这种结果是由于新政权削弱了工人阶级的政治力量,以及伴随着内战(1918-1921年)和战后重建的巨大社会变迁所导致的不可避免的结果。如果说布尔什维克夺取权力的政治和社会经济影响是工人阶级的分裂,那么,它的意识形态影响则是阶级作为一种反对语言的贬低。作为“无产阶级国家”的公民,俄罗斯工人不能抱怨“他们的政治权利被剥夺或经济剥削”。当然,他们仍然有不满。但是,苏联势力的胜利意味着,首先,没有上层剥削阶级要为这些事负责,其次,呼吁集体行动不可能以阶级的语言为基础,而不给人以“非理性”,甚至是“精神错乱”的印象。世界上第一个马克思列宁主义政权的上台产生了一种自相矛盾的效果,即“阶级意识没有必要”和工人“不可能反对”。【40】
抵抗是不可能的假设让一些人(尽管不是所有人)意识到,在苏联的背景下,人们反对对它进行研究。反对意见要么是概念上的,要么是方法上的。赫尔贝克声称,那些努力研究斯大林时期苏联人民反抗运动的人“将他们自己的自由主义价值观投射到历史角色身上,赋予他们自由的自我认知,并从周围的政治环境中争取自治。”其结果是,苏联题材“奇怪地脱离了(他的)社会和政治环境”,其“表达方式和行动”被剥夺了“具体的意义框架”。如果说赫尔贝克认为抵抗主要存在于当代西方历史学家的想象中,那么迈克尔·戴维德福克斯则认为它主要存在于苏联安全警察(OGPU)的想象中。在这种观点看来,布尔什维克的政治文化是一种说教式的文化,通过仪式般地揭露真实或想象的敌人,试图“改造自我和社会”,其可疑的遗产包括大量关于“虚构或夸大的反对”的描述,历史学家们直到1991年才开始了解。【41】
赫尔贝克和我在这一点上是一致的:大多数参与反抗行动的工人都坚守着十月革命的狭隘价值观。我们的不同之处在于,在斯大林统治下,这些人可能会有什么样的行为。根据赫尔贝克的说法,任何将苏联价值观内化的人——他认为大部分人在20世纪30年代就已经这样做了——都面临着一个严峻的选择:要么加入“党的大合唱”,要么让自己(可怜的怀疑者!)“自我边缘化和原子化”。即使有人承认这是产生赫尔贝克日记的狭窄环境的情况,毫无疑问,在工厂车间里存在着其他可能性,工人们经常以苏维埃权力支持者的身份宣称自己有权决定革命的意义和结果,以此来质疑布尔什维克的主张。这本书并没有忽视意识形态或1917年的破裂,而是将两者置于关注的中心。然而,其结果是一个“不同的自我”,与赫尔贝克所描绘的瘫痪和心理问题相去甚远。【42】
与赫尔贝克不同的是,戴维德福克斯明白,在解读斯大林统治下的个人行为时,绝不能忽视社会背景的特殊性——尤其是特定的集体与“新兴的苏联政治文化”的接近性。然而,戴维德福克斯错误地坚持,历史学家将抵抗的证据仅仅看作是“苏联共产主义说教中显露出来的伪装和揭露的文化”的反映。反对意见并不是因为戴维德福克斯没有承认,抵抗研究依赖于更多的OGPU资料来解释个人对斯大林主义的体验;更确切地说,是他对斯大林时期安全警察职能的理解太过有限。戴维德福克斯和彼得弗里茨切(Peter Fritzsche)都建议不要使用“抵抗”这个词,因为在德国史学的语境中,它会导致“一种错误的印象,即大众对纳粹的看法根本不支持”。【43】但含蓄地宣称抵抗研究的史学红利,只要人们忽视斯大林(Stalin)和希特勒(Hitler)政权之间的一个关键区别,苏联在这一领域的影响力就不会比德国更大:前者在国内实施了一场社会经济革命,而后者则什么也没做。
国家的社会经济革命直接影响到治安警察的活动。而盖世太保忙活着自己“各种各样的抱怨”,事实上,在任何一个听起来像颠覆性异见者的现代社会中,苏联面临的任务是在工人和农民中间维持或重建秩序,对他们来说,“自上而下”的革命具有难以想象的破坏性。无视集体的抗议,他们的传统、文化和生活方式遭到了一个决心按照自己的意识形态重塑社会的政党的攻击,仅仅因为我们常常别无选择,只能通过“安全警察扭曲的镜头”来看待这些事件,就会因为似是而非的方法论原因,使几十年来不幸的政治人物看不到的现象变得无形。【44】因为历史上不存在没有失真的镜头——尤其是在苏联历史领域——历史学家的任务必须是针对每个镜头的缺陷进行调整,而不是对其中产生的折射视而不见。
抗性研究的批评者指出研究来源的偏见是正确的,即使这个问题是该领域早就意识到的问题之一。不过,他们认为有关抵抗的报道只是苏联政治文化的误导,这一观点存在明显的弱点。如果狭义地适用于那些作为间谍、渗透和破坏者展示审判的基础的文件——这些捏造的文件显然主要是为了说教——它多少有些说服力。但同样的论点并不适用于所有OGPU来源,包括那些内容从未打算公开的报道。这些来源的数量远远超过以某种形式供公众消费的来源,它们主要起着官僚的作用:传递国家各机关履行其职责所需的信息。
伊瓦诺沃工业区中的一个例子说明了这一点。在斯大林的统治下,苏联的工会无法履行他们的职责——为了经济的快速发展,使劳动力尽可能地安静和生产——如果不彻底了解车间里正在发生的事情。然而,由于工会缺乏资源,更重要的是,工会与他们声称为其利益服务的工人之间的关系疏远,这些知识往往是缺乏的。OGPU提供了一个信息缺失的部分解决方案,它向地区工会委员会提交了一份报告,每当工人参与或威胁发动集体行动时。尽管有时会被灌输布尔什维克的意识形态类别,如“落后的工人”和“富农情绪”,这些报告描述的事件和参与其中的个人,在公共场合永远不会被使用。例如,罢工被定性为“罢工”,而不是“反苏事件”,罢工领导人被认定为——如果是这样的话——在工厂车间拥有“巨大权力”的老工人,他们是城市苏维埃的民选代表。这些报告的目的不是要进行一场作秀,而是要向工会传达减少生产进一步中断的可能性所需的信息。(例如,如果工人们抱怨食物短缺,工会将被建议增加向发生骚乱的地区运送面包的数量。)这些报告的内容是高度机密的,如果没有严厉的惩罚,就不能透露,即使是间接透露。与此同时,其中所述的事件经常在其他类型的来源中得到直接或间接的证实,例如政党备忘录、工会罢工报告、日记和工人写给政府领导人和新闻界的信件。【45】在这本书中,这些和其他类型的资料都被使用了——而且,只要有可能,还被三角化了——来证明基于阶级语言的集体反抗是“上层”对斯大林革命的反应的主要主题。

纺织工人

本研究的调查地点是伊万诺沃地区(图1和图2),这是一个单一工业大省,由俄罗斯四个最古老的纺织产业地区(Iaroslavl, IvanovoVoznesensk, Kostroma和Vladimir)合并而成,1929年形成。伊万诺沃的土地面积是比利时的四倍,人口470万,在工业就业水平和工业产值方面仅次于莫斯科和列宁格勒。该地区的327,980名工厂工人(占苏联总数的八分之一)中,有209,964人受雇于105家棉纺厂,59,791人受雇于42家亚麻厂。作为苏联纺织品产值近三分之一的来源地,这个位于莫斯科东北部的“印花布共和国”注定要在强制资本积累计划中扮演一个至关重要但却最不值得羡慕的角色。【46】
图一
图1所示。苏联西部地图,显示伊万诺沃工业区的位置,1929-1936年。
图二
图2。伊凡诺沃工业区(1932年)。Kovrov的数据包括来自附近三个村庄的1424名工人。Viazniki的数据包括来自附近10个村庄的5021名工人。新Pistsovo的数据包括附近Chertovishchi工厂的480名工人。(资料来源:Raiony Ivanovskoi promyshlennoi oblasti [MoscowIvanovo, 1933],《制图图5和6注释》。)
虽然最古老的IIR纺织厂是在彼得大帝统治时期建造的,但大多数都是19世纪的古董。不幸的是,其中包含的许多技术也是如此。兰开夏郡的动力织机在西方可能被认为是过时的,但在20世纪30年代,它仍然是该地区织布厂的标准设备。此外,大多数这样的织机在1910年之前就已经安装好了。亚麻纺织厂的情况更糟,它们70%的设备都是上世纪生产的。换句话说,这个本应产生大量盈余用于“社会主义建设”的行业,本身就迫切需要资本投资和现代化。尽管有相反的承诺,但在五年计划期间,两者都没有发生显著的规模。【47】其结果是:生产问题抑制了收入,并在车间里播下了不满的种子。
老旧的和经常过时的资本存量的纺织工业是安置在工厂大,甚至大规模。伊万诺沃的情况尤其如此,典型的棉花企业雇佣了2430名工人。虽然这个数字比全国平均水平高出三分之一,但它掩盖了该地区十七个“巨人”的规模,这些“巨人”每个都自称有五千到一万二千名工人。大型钢铁厂带来了规模经济,帮助苏联的规划者降低了生产成本。但是,这些工厂及其周围的劳动力异常集中,也使得工人们更容易将自己视为一个独特的集体或阶级的成员,从而使劳工骚乱迅速蔓延。【48】
棉花是苏联纺织业的最大分支;排在第二位的是亚麻。伊万诺沃的情况也是如此:四分之三的工人在棉纺厂工作,四分之一的工人在亚麻厂工作。在整个工业中,纺织厂是最大的雇主,而亚麻厂是第二大雇主。同样的情况也发生在伊万诺沃上,每四个人中就有一个纺织工,每四个人中就有一个纺纱工。就像工人在地理上的集中一样,他们在手工艺上的集中——尤其是在一个长久以来以手工艺身份自傲的行业里——可能会造成不稳定,因为一个轮班、工棚或工厂的编织工的抗议,往往会引起其他轮班、工棚和工厂的同行的抗议。【49】
在苏联的工业中,没有哪个部门比纺织业的妇女比例更高。在全国范围内以及在IIR中,略多于三分之五的特工是女性。由于从事某一特定行业的女性收入往往比男性低八分之一左右,劳动力的性别特征帮助苏联规划者控制了生产成本。【50】但是,就像操作人员在地理和工艺上的集中一样,该行业中女性的高比例可能会造成不稳定。原因是:社会底层的女性比她们的男性同伴更有可能参与抗议活动。这种现象需要解释。她被社会化,独自承担大部分家务劳动——或者至少没有男性亲属的帮助——下层俄国妇女对耗尽她体力的措施(如工作量增加)非常敏感,对使她难以履行母亲、妻子或女儿职责的条件(如面包短缺)也非常敏感。鉴于她的工资相对较低,她对压低实得工资的措施(如提高对缺陷产品的罚款)和条件(如低质量原材料)同样敏感。此外,她知道如何利用旧的性别刻板印象——也就是说,她是自己情绪的受害者,倾向于不守规矩的行为,或者是“黑暗”(男性)力量从阴影中控制着她——这剥夺了她的能动性,但也使她不那么容易被解雇和逮捕。下层俄国妇女因此有了更大的自由,并且随着“上层”革命的到来,有了反抗的动力。【51】
在车间车间里,由于工艺上的性别隔离,性别身份得到了加强:大部分的织工、织工、工头、染工、修理工和机械师都是男性,而大部分拉丝架女工、环架纺纱工、锭架纺纱工、卷绕架纺纱工、清洁工和织布工都是女性。【52】在新经济政策时代,性别之间的对立——尤其是男性监工和女性纺织工之间的对立——在工业车间里并不少见。然而,在五年计划期间,由于工人阶级社会的基本价值观和利益受到攻击,以阶级语言为基础的身份——或者说是强化而不是弱化——往往被手艺和性别身份所取代。
纺织工人是苏联从事雇佣劳动时间最长的工人。在棉花工业中,经验最丰富的操作人员是在伊万诺沃地区:五分之三的人在棉纺厂仍在私人手中时(即1918年以前)就加入了劳动力大军,超过四分之一的人在1905年革命之前就已经加入了。尽管在内战期间工业实际上处于闲置状态,因此,在五年计划期间,“基本的、革命前的工业骨干仍然坐在板凳上”。【53】在某种程度上,这些干部是社会化的工作和车间的时间纪律,他们是苏联规划者的资产。从某种程度上说,他们利用自己作为推翻旧政权的那一代工人的权威,谴责布尔什维克背叛了十月革命,他们是一种负担。
除了经验丰富之外,纺织业的劳动力也异常稳定。例如,到1929年,伊万诺沃地区人员平均为其现任雇主工作7.4年(在苏联工业中,这个数字是6年)。与布尔什维克的假设相反,最稳定的工作人员是妇女和那些在乡村磨坊工作的人:前者是因为在内战期间有太多的男人被动员起来参军;后者是由于与土地的联系和当地缺乏其他就业机会。劳动力的稳定对生产力有有利的影响,因此受到了党的青睐。尽管如此,它还是引发了保守主义,在五年计划期间,这种保守主义在激烈捍卫商店的传统和惯例上表现得很明显。【54】
劳动力的稳定性和保守性进一步得到加强的是,工人中微弱多数是工厂的第二代工人。一个多世纪以来,伊万诺沃一直是纺织制造业的中心,孩子们常常追随父母的脚步来到纺织厂,这一点也不奇怪,因为其他孩子大多来自农民。关键的变量是年龄:操作人员越年轻,他或她越有可能是全职工人的后代。这对苏联的规划者们来说是有好处的:由于父母和孩子经常一起工作,通常前者承担了对后者的训练和纪律的责任。【55】但也存在风险:车间的传统通常是家族传统,这放大了对它们的依恋,以及对破坏它们的政策的反对。
从劳动力稳定的角度来看,拥有大量女性是有帮助的,但这是有代价的:纺织工人是苏联工业中受教育程度最低的工人。总的来说,五分之一的伊万诺沃工人是文盲。关键的变量是性别和年龄:女性的文盲率是男性的4.5倍(27.9%对6.3%),40岁及以上的操作工的文盲率是20岁及以下操作工的14倍(44.3%对3.2%)。教育水平的差异虽然没有那么明显,但却是相似的。【56】为了提高劳动力的技能和官方宣传的有效性——毕竟一个文盲工人既不会读技术手册,也不会读苏联报纸——政府在20世纪20年代努力教育劳动力。在这一时期,“文化战线”取得了实质性的进展,但其结果并非没有讽刺意味:尽管扫盲促进了有利于党的观点的传播,但对敌对观点的传播也起到了同样的作用。
在纺织业和苏联其他行业一样,家庭是工人阶级的基本制度。十分之七的伊万诺沃工人都有自己的家庭;其余的是单身(未婚,无家属)。尽管食物短缺和收入波动对“家庭”工作者的打击比“单身”工作者更大,但亲属关系对两者都很重要:几乎所有的“家庭”工作者(93.1%)与他们的受抚养人生活在同一屋檐下,而“家庭”工作者(52.2%)中的大多数人寄宿在亲戚家里。我们没有必要将俄罗斯工人阶级家庭理想化,因为他们表现出了诸如殴打妻子和酗酒等慢性疾病,也没有必要欣赏他们在社会危机时刻为其成员提供援助所发挥的关键作用。【57】
虽然绝大多数(82.4%)的操作工与亲属生活在一起,但纺织业比其他主要行业有更多的非传统家庭。(通常由女性领导的非传统家庭倾向于集中在纺织等女性主导的行业。)信息检索的数据不可用,但在莫斯科纺织工人家庭的1926年的一项研究发现,只有56.6%是由丈夫妻子二分,而27.7%的单亲(通常情况下,一个寡妇)和14.8%的非父母家庭成员(例如,一个幸存的孩子)。【58】一般来说,非传统家庭在五年计划期间遭受的损失更大,因为他们有更少的潜在和实际的收入来源,而且通常根本没有男性收入来源,因此当生活水平下降时,采取补偿行动的机会更少了。
与其他主要行业一样,工人住房短缺,特别是在城市地区,生活条件很原始。历史上,伊万诺沃的工人通过为自己建造一个小型私人住宅来解决他们的住房需求(通常是六到七平方米的木制“侏儒”小屋)。该地区每七名工人中,有三名住在自己家里,两名从私人(通常是农民)房东那里租了一间房或公寓,一名住在工厂房(通常是营房或宿舍),还有一名住在市政房或合作社房。因为在工人阶级的社区中,唯一的出行方式是步行,所以操作工往往住得离工厂相对较近:五分之四的操作工每天往返通勤不到六公里。关键变量是企业所在地:农村钢铁厂的员工住在自己家里的可能性是城市钢铁厂员工的两倍,往返上下班超过10公里的可能性是城市钢铁厂员工的八倍。(农村钢铁厂的生产率往往低于城市钢铁厂的一个原因是,它们的工人在通勤上花费了更多的时间和精力。)然而,不管他们住在哪里,工人们都必须与肮脏、拥挤和其他条件斗争,根据一位工会官员的说法,这些条件在车间里播下了“政治落后”情绪的种子。【59】
在20世纪20年代的苏联社会学中,与土地的联系一直是关注的焦点。这个问题在这里值得关注,不是因为它预示了布尔什维克所设想的车间动荡,而是因为“农民”工人和“无产阶级”之间的紧张局势不时浮出。不幸的是,这些消息来源几乎没有透露特工如何定义这些条款。因此,我们必须依赖1929年工会普查中采用的不完善的定义,即把与土地的联系等同于正式的土地所有权。【60】根据这一定义,“农民”工人占伊万诺沃工厂劳动力的19.3%。(在整个苏联工业中,这个数字是25%。)关键变量是企业所在地:在城市工厂,5.7%的工人拥有土地;在农村磨坊,这个比例为44.1%。大多数亚麻纺织厂位于村庄,而大多数棉纺厂位于这样或那样规模的城镇。因此,前者有四分之一以上的工人与土地联系在一起,而后者只有六分之一。【61】
不管他们在哪里工作,拥有土地的农民总是会使用土地:十分之九种庄稼,四分之三拥有菜园,三分之二拥有家畜(一头牛,或者更少的时候,一匹马)。这样的活动是费时的,对九分之一的劳动者来说,相当于第二份全职工作。然而,贫瘠的土壤和气候条件意味着红利很少只足以养活一个家庭。因此,通常情况下,“农民”工人对工资的依赖程度只比他们的“无产阶级”同事低一点点,这一点至关重要。前者为16.2年,后者仅为13.3年,说明这种情况已经存在很长时间了。【62】
农村对车间的影响比前一段的数据所暗示的要大,因为居住在农村的伊万诺沃工人(39.1%)是拥有土地人数的两倍。绝大多数(65%到80%)的“农村”工人住在自己的村庄里;其余的人都在磨坊附近的地方租了房,在休息日回家。(最有可能租到的是工人,他们的老家离磨坊有十多公里远。)农场和工厂之间的联系进一步提升,是那些与村庄有联系的操作工努力尽可能长时间地维护它,因为进入菜园可以提高一个人的生活水平,并作为城市粮食短缺的缓冲地带。【63】因此,农村关系稳定了,因为它使劳动力处于更好的物质条件,但也不稳定,因为它将所谓的农民情绪嵌入了工厂本身。
与其他主要行业相比,官方对纺织业的影响力较弱。虽然大多数工人属于官方工会,但没有哪个党派的比例比他们更低。例如,在伊万诺沃,只有13.3%的棉花工人是该党或共青团的党员或候选人。(就整个苏联工业而言,这个数字是20%。)就文化程度而言,性别和代沟也很明显:在加入该党的人中,有五分之一的男性和三分之一的工人年龄在23岁以下,但只有十分之一的女性和二十分之一的特工年龄在50岁以上。在强制资本积累的计划中,党可能已经将纺织女工分配到一个关键的角色,但它动员她们的能力是有限的。【64】
从历史上看,伊万诺沃的组成地区属于俄罗斯的“最红地区”。“根据大卫·曼德尔的说法,“(伊万诺沃)地区的工人在第一次世界大战之前,在国家杜马的选举中,以及1917年在苏联的选举中,在工会会议、地方自治机构和制宪会议中,都表现出了他们对布尔什维克的喜爱。”【65】正如俄罗斯各地的工厂一样,1917年秋,该地区对布尔什维克的支持达到顶峰,当时有30万工人在那里工作,参加了一场全国性的罢工浪潮,以表达他们希望“将所有权力移交给苏维埃”的愿望。然而,对列宁政党的支持并不是无条件的,而是源于这样一种观念:首先,布尔什维克对当地的要求做出了回应;其次,他们的激进计划为经济危机提供了一个解决方案,这场经济危机已经破坏了民众的生活水平。【66】
党未能兑现其党员们所理解的“十月革命”(被威廉姆•夫斯(William Husband)称为“改善经济、纠正不公平现象、打击社会对立”的承诺,这不可避免地导致了幻灭。然而,由于内战引发的经济危机,在国有化完成之前,伊万诺沃的车间就已经闲置了很多。当经济最终开始复苏时,经济复苏是缓慢而稳定的:在1921年引入新经济政策的五年内,棉花和亚麻行业的就业人数都超过了战前水平。【67】
新经济政策时代社会认同的碎片化限制了但没有消除集体行动的潜力。例如,1925年,在布尔什维克采取泰勒主义措施,努力提高至关重要的消费品(布料)的产量后,一场罢工浪潮席卷了俄罗斯的棉纺厂,而它利用市场从农民手中哄骗粮食的政策就是基于此。【68】然而,根据克里斯·沃德(Chris Ward)的说法,这一事件并没有反映出什么“阶级意识”,而是“不满”的“巧合”。【69】
尽管新经济政策时代提供了大量证据,证明纺织工人在生产方面削弱国家政策的能力,但布尔什维克认为,阶级战争言论和有针对性的镇压相结合,足以防止对他们强制资本积累计划的强烈反对。【70】考虑到计划中包含的劳动力分化和对生活水平的妄想,不难理解为什么党会做出错误的估计。接下来几章的重点是这种误判的程度、严重性和后果。
注释:
1.GARF, f. 5451, op. 42, d. 250, ll. 17–18. 根据作者对其内容的分析,估计了Shvernik报告的日期。Kineshma的普通布尔什维克党员使用“饥饿配给”一词。GARF, f. 374, op. 27, d. 1988, l. 63.
2.IX vsesoiuznyi s”ezd professional’nykh soiuzov SSSR: stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow, 1933), pp. 96 –99, 194 (“steeped”), 659– 660 (“petitbourgeois,” “bourgeois influences”), 708 (“classalien work”).
3.“自上而下”的革命是一系列激进的社会经济政策——包括强制工业化和集体化,以及对私人贸易的战争——这是布尔什维克从1928年开始实施的。
4.Cited in B. A. Starkov, “Delo Riutina,” Oni ne molchali, comp. A. V. Afanas’ev (Moscow, 1991), 162, 164. “去富农化”是剥夺所谓富农的财产和公民权的政策。许多富农被流放、监禁或处决。
5.RGASPI, f. 17, op. 85, d. 305, l. 7; E. H. Carr and R. W. Davies, Foundations of a Planned Economy, 1926–1929 (Harmondsworth, England, 1969), 1:914; R. W. Davies, The Development of the Soviet Budgetary System (Cambridge, England, 1958), 194 –195. As of 1928, the textile industry was the largest in the USSR in terms of employment and gross output. Trud v SSSR: statisticheskii spravochnik (Moscow, 1936), 94; R. W. Davies, The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, 1929–1930 (Cambridge, Mass., 1989), 500.
6.Vos’moi s”ezd professional’nykh soiuzov SSSR (Moscow, 1929), 416; Carr and Davies, Foundations, 1:1038; Piatiletnii plan narodnokhoziaistvennogo stroitel’stva SSSR, 3rd ed., vol. 2, pt. 1 (Moscow, 1930), 212–213, 251; A. M. Korneev, Tekstil’naia promyshlennost SSSR i puti ee razvitiia (Moscow, 1957), 144.十月革命后不久成立的最高经济委员会在管理苏联工业方面发挥了重要作用,直到1932年,它被划分为重型、轻型和木材工业的分局。
7.泰勒主义是二十世纪早期由美国人弗雷德里克·w·泰勒开创的一种工业管理的科学方法,他对工厂工人进行了时间和动作研究,以确定他们执行任务的最有效方式。关于布尔什维克对泰勒主义的迷恋,请看 Mark R. Beissinger, Scientific Management, Socialist Discipline, and Soviet Power (Cambridge, Mass., 1988), chap. 1.
8.Piatiletnii plan, vol. 2, pt. 1, 212–220; Direktivy KPSS i Sovetskogo pravitel’stva po khoziaistvennym voprosam, 1917–1957gg.: sbornik dokumentov (Moscow, 1957), 2:51–59.
http://9.In this book, “operatives” always signifies workers in the textile industry.
10.Statistics on the import and production of raw cotton are from Roger A. Clarke, Soviet Economic Facts, 1917–1970 (London, 1972), 48, 116. Employment statistics are from Trud v SSSR, 94.
11.Naum Jasny, Soviet Industrialization, 1928–1952 (Chicago, 1961), 73.
12.Korneev, Tekstil’naia promyshlennost, 144, 200; GARF, f. 5457, op. 23, d. 228, ll. 18–20; Trud v SSSR, 94. Target real wage figure is for textile workers. Piatiletnii plan, vol. 2, pt. 2, 190. Actual real wage figure is for Soviet nonrural workers. Jasny, Soviet Industrialization, 110. The FFYP called for 1.1 billion rubles of capital investment in the textile industry. Piatiletnii plan, vol. 2, pt. 1, 213. Substantially less than that seems to have been allocated. Edward Page Jr. and Natalie C. Grant, “The Textile Industry of the Soviet Union, 1913–1936” (unpublished report, U.S. Department of State, July 1937), 234. On poor planning of such investment, see GARF, f. 5457, op. 23, d. 228, ll. 21–23; and Korneev, Tekstil’naia promyshlennost, 154 –155.
13.右翼反对派最著名的人物是老布尔什维克的尼古拉·布哈林(Nikolai Bukharin),他们“自上而下”地反对斯大林的革命,理由是这会破坏生活水平,引发社会动荡,从而危及党对权力的掌控,进而危及十月革命。 Stephen F. Cohen, Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography, 1888– 1938 (Oxford, 1980); Moshe Lewin, Political Undercurrents in Soviet Economic Debates: From Bukharin to the Modern Reformers (Princeton, N.J., 1974).
14.Laborforce statistics are as of 1928. Trud v SSSR, 93.
15.苏维埃是1917年由俄国工人、士兵和农民选举成立的地方委员会。尽管布尔什维克在夺取政权后将这些委员会置于中央控制之下,但为其服务的代表们不得不不时地参加选举。因此,即使在20世纪30年代,他们也被认为比党更能满足人民的需求。
16.孟什维克不是布尔什维克马克思主义者;社会主义革命者是非马克思主义的(土地)社会主义者。 For a description of textile industry crafts, see the Appendix.
17.伊万诺沃的党控制委员会表示,“多达1.5万名工人”参加了罢工浪潮,但其报告是在罢工事件发生后几天内撰写的,没有提到事件的重要部分。笔者估计有2万起罢工,其推导如下。首先,许多消息来源证实,几乎所有在普切日、捷伊科沃和维丘加的无党派人员都参加了罢工。由于到1932年4月,这些城镇总共雇佣了大约24000名工人,而且只有大约八分之一的纺织工人是党的,所以保守估计这些城镇的罢工人数不少于17000人。第二,控制委员会估计,列日涅沃区有2500人罢工。最后,Nerl的纺织车间雇佣了大约700名工人,他们中的大多数都参加了罢工。总共约有2万名特工参与了伊万诺沃的罢工浪潮。GARF, f. 374, op. 27, d. 1988,ll. 93–85; RGASPI, f. 81, op. 3, d. 213, ll. 3–15, 64 – 67, 69–71, 77–78; TsDNIIO, f. 327, op. 4, d. 508, l. 3.
18.E. P. Thompson, “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century,” Past and Present, no. 50 (1971): 76 –136; Padraic Kenney, Rebuilding Poland: Workers and Communists, 1945–1950 (Ithaca, N.Y., 1997), 6.
19.APUFSBIaO, s.d. 8597, l. 33.
20.十月革命也是他们的,因为纺织工人为实现和保卫革命付出了巨大的努力。1917年秋,俄罗斯各大工业部门爆发了大罢工,工人们试图表达他们对临时政府的反对和对苏维埃阶级专政的支持。值得注意的是,当时最大的一次大罢工发生在伊万诺地区的纺织工人身上。Diane P. Koenker and William G. Rosenberg, Strikes and Revolution in Russia, 1917 (Princeton, N.J., 1989), 292–298.
21.These articles defined and criminalized antiSoviet and counterrevolutionary speech and behavior. Ugolovnyi kodeks RSFSR: Redaktsii 1926 goda s izmeneniiami do 1 iulia 1931 goda (Moscow, 1931).
22.GARF, f. 5457, op. 16, d. 163, l. 226ob. (“defenders”); APUFSBIO, s.d. 289p, l. 87 (“the slogans”).
23.Steve Smith, “Class and Gender: Women’s Strikes in St. Petersburg, 1895–1917, and in Shanghai, 1895–1927,” Social History 19, no. 2 (1994): 141– 168 (quote, 142). I say “reemergence of class” because class was a potent category of social identity on shop floors in 1917. Koenker and Rosenberg, Strikes and Revolution; David Mandel, “October in the IvanovoKineshma Industrial Region,” in Revolution in Russia: Reassessments of 1917, ed. Edith Regain Frankel, Jonathan Frankel, and Baruch KneiPaz (Cambridge, England, 1992), 157–187.
24.这也是具有颠覆性的,因为党长期以来试图垄断阶级,“作为一种政治合法化的手段”。David L. Hoffmann, Peasant Metropolis: Social Identities in Moscow, 1929–1941 (Ithaca, N.Y., 1994), 211.
25.Orlando Figes and Boris Kolonitskii, Interpreting the Russian Revolution: The Language and Symbols of 1917 (New Haven, Conn., 1999), 108 (quote); Sarah Davies, “‘Us against Them’: Social Identity in Soviet Russia, 1934 – 41,” Russian Review 56, no. 1 (1997): 70 –89.
26.作为一个“俱乐部”,工人们传统上聚集在这里讨论他们的担忧和计划抗议,以及车间里的性别冲突, see Diane P. Koenker, “Men against Women on the Shop Floor in Early Soviet Russia: Gender and Class in the Socialist Workplace,” American Historical Review 100, no. 5 (1995): 1438–1464; and Jeffrey J. Rossman, “Worker Resistance under Stalin: Class and Gender in the Textile Mills of the Ivanovo Industrial Region, 1928–1932” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1997), 18–30.
27.从对农民工投诉的频率来看,在一些纺织厂,来自偏远地区的农民工似乎是明显的少数——大约占劳动力的10%。 N. Semenov, Litso fabrichnykh rabochikh prozhivaiushchikh v derevniakh i politprosvetrabota sredi nikh (MoscowLeningrad, 1929), 35. 另一组则小得多。在五年计划的前夕,只有1.3%的伊万诺沃工厂工人被列为季节工。GARF/RR2, f. 374, op. 20, d. 25, l. 70. 1929年,Lishentsy被从工会中除名,,在当年的大规模裁员中,她是第一批被送往劳工交易中心的工人之一,但她在车间里的影响力微乎其微。 Golos tekstilei (hereafter, GT ), 1/15/29, 4; TsDNIIO, f. 327, op. 5, d. 162, l. 9.
28.尽管关于谁可以合法地声称自己是工人的车间观点被灌输了官方价值观,但布尔什维克坚持认为,任何“从上而下”反对革命某一方面或另一方面的人都是工人阶级的敌人。一般来说,纺织工人不同意这种评价,并谴责用这种语言来描述他们领导人的行为。
29.Familial references served a similar function in nineteenthcentury European labor struggles and in protests by Russian workers and peasants through 1917. Sonya O. Rose, “Gender and Labor History: The NineteenthCentury Legacy,” International Review of Social History 38, supplement 1 (1993): 159; Barbara Alpern Engel, “Women, Men, and the Languages of Peasant Resistance, 1870 –1907,” in Culture in Flux: LowerClass Values, Practices, and Resistance in Late Imperial Russia, ed. Stephen P. Frank and Mark D. Steinberg (Princeton, N.J., 1994), 34 –53; Anne BobroffHajal, Working Women in Russia Under the Hunger Tsars: Political Activism and Daily Life (Brooklyn, N.Y., 1994).
30.See, for example, Merle Fainsod, Smolensk under Soviet Rule (London, 1958); Alex Inkeles and Raymond Bauer, The Soviet Citizen: Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society (Cambridge, Mass., 1959); and Solomon M. Schwarz, Labor in the Soviet Union (London, 1953).
31.Moshe Lewin, The Making of the Soviet System: Essays in the Social History of Interwar Russia (New York, 1985), 221–223, 257; Lewin, “On Soviet Industrialization,” in Social Dimensions of Soviet Industrialization, ed. William G. Rosenberg and Lewis H. Siegelbaum (Bloomington, Ind., 1993), 282.
32.Classic revisionist titles include Sheila Fitzpatrick, Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union, 1921–1934 (Cambridge, England, 1979); Hiroaki Kuromiya, Stalin’s Industrial Revolution: Politics and Workers, 1928–1932 (Cambridge, England, 1988); Lynne Viola, The Best Sons of the Fatherland: Workers in the Vanguard of Soviet Collectivization (Oxford, 1987); and William J. Chase, Workers, Society and the Soviet State: Labor and Life in Moscow, 1918–1929 (Chicago, 1987), especially chap. 8. For a latemodel version of revisionism, see Kenneth M. Straus, Factory and Community in Stalin’s Russia: The Making of an Industrial Working Class (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997).
33.Donald Filtzer, Soviet Workers and Stalinist Industrialization: The Formation of Modern Soviet Production Relations, 1929–1941 (London, 1986). Vladimir Andrle 与Filtzer的观点类似,但没有注意到五年计划期间发生的集体车间抵制。 Andrle, Workers in Stalin’s Russia: Industrialization and Social Change in a Planned Economy (New York, 1988). NEP,即新经济政策时代,指的是从1921年到1927年这段时期,当时苏联努力以一种渐进而不是革命的方式推进社会主义。在新经济政策下,除了经济的“制高点”之外,所有经济都掌握在私人手中,城镇和村庄之间的交流原则上由市场而不是国家来管理。
34.Stephen Kotkin, Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization (Berkeley, 1995), chap. 5.
35.Jochen Hellbeck, “Fashioning the Stalinist Soul: The Diary of Stepan Podlubnyi, 1931–9,” in Stalinism: New Directions, ed. Sheila Fitzpatrick (New York, 2000), 77–116 (quotes, 82, 111, 104).
36.Jochen Hellbeck, “Speaking Out: Languages of Affirmation and Dissent in Stalinist Russia,” in The Resistance Debate in Russian and Soviet History, eds. Michael DavidFox, Peter Holquist, and Marshall Poe (Bloomington, Ind., 2003), 108.
37.On the “neototalitarian” school, see Thomas Dodman, “The Fate of Red October,” History Workshop Journal 56, no. 1 (2003): 258–267.
38.Sheila Fitzpatrick, “Ascribing Class: The Construction of Social Identity in Soviet Russia,” in Stalinism: New Directions, 20 – 46 (quotes, 20, 39). 菲茨帕特里克对斯大林统治下的日常生活的研究堪称杰作。读了这本书,你很难发现任何迹象表明,在20世纪30年代,大多数身体健壮的苏联成年人几乎有一半醒着的时间都在从事这种或那种形式的雇佣劳动。尽管菲茨帕特里克为这一遗漏辩护称,工作经历太过多样化,不值得纳入一项关注共性的研究,她决定将工人的经验简化为他们作为消费者的角色而忽略生产领域似乎更像是源于她的假设社会身份是,至少在斯大林主义的背景下,是国家赋予的。 Sheila Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times (Oxford, 1999), 11.
39.See, for example, the editors’ introduction and the essays by Diane P. Koenker, Stephen Kotkin, Chris Ward, and Gábor T. Rittersporn in Making Workers Soviet: Power, Class, and Identity, ed. Lewis H. Siegelbaum and Ronald Grigor Suny (Ithaca, N.Y., 1994).
40.Koenker, “Men against Women,” 1461–1462 (“a proletarian . . . exploitation”); Koenker, “Class and Consciousness in a Socialist Society: Workers in the Printing Trades during NEP,” in Russia in the Era of NEP: Explorations in Soviet Society and Culture, ed. Sheila Fitzpatrick, Alexander Rabinowitch, and Richard Stites (Bloomington, Ind., 1991), 53 (“class”); Kotkin, Magnetic Mountain, 226 (“irrational psychopathic”), 236 (“opposition”).
41.Hellbeck, “Speaking Out,” 106 –107; Michael DavidFox, “Whither Resistance?” in Resistance Debate, 235 (“transform”); DavidFox, “Masquerade: Sources, Resistance and Early Soviet Political Culture,” Trondheim Studies on East European Cultures and Societies, no. 1 (May 1999): 32 (“fictional”). 尽管她写的关于农民反抗的文章令人信服,菲茨帕特里克至少应该成为抵抗抵抗俱乐部的候选成员。她在一篇开创性的早期专著(《教育和社会流动性》)中指出,苏联工人将这场革命“从上而下”地看作是十月革命的完成——因为它为他们提供了一种原本无法达到的向上流动的机会,在最近的研究中,她不出所料地否定了这些工人抵制的重要性。Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, 224.
42.Hellbeck, “Speaking Out,” 134 (“the chorus”), 136 (“selfmarginalization”); Peter Fritzsche, “On the Subjects of Resistance,” in Resistance Debate, 216 (“dissenting”).
43.DavidFox, “Masquerade,” 12–14 (“the emerging,” 14); DavidFox, “Whither Resistance,” 236 (“the culture”); Fritzsche, “On the Subjects,” 215 (“the false”).
44.Fritzsche, “On the Subjects,” 214 (“all,” “distorted”). Moshe Lewin 他在很久以前就指出,1928年以后,斯大林政权越来越依赖安全警察“从上而下”地“控制”革命造成的“混乱”。 Making of the Soviet System, 265.为了精彩地描述党和执法者在农村的斗争,, see Lynne Viola, Peasant Rebels under Stalin: Collectivization and the Culture of Peasant Resistance (Oxford, 1996).
45.罢工报告通常由代表企业工会的工厂委员会的一名成员填写,手写在预先打印好的“罢工记录表”上。这种形式的存在表明,罢工在苏联工业中比以前想象的更为普遍。 For examples, see GAIO, f. 1276, op. 1, d. 28. For examples of OGPU reports on labor unrest, see GAIO, f. 1276, op. 23, dd. 2– 4, 6 –7, 9–10.
46.Raiony Ivanovskoi promyshlennoi oblasti (hereafter, Raiony IPO) (MoscowIvanovo, 1933), 1:9, 26 –27; Istoriia goroda Ivanova (Ivanovo, 1962), 2:142; Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR: statisticheskii spravochnik (Moscow, 1932), 72– 75; Trud i profdvizhenie v Ivanovskoi promyshlennoi oblasti: statisticheskii spravochnik (Ivanovo, 1929), 4 –7; Davies, Soviet Economy, 526; GT, 4/14/29, 2 (“calico”). 所有的数据都是1929年的;地区排名截止到1930年。伊万诺沃Voznesensk地区的首府,以及后来的伊万诺沃的首府,在1932年以前正式称为伊万诺沃Voznesensk,口语称为Ivanovo,当时口语名称也变成了正式名称。在这本书里,它只会被称为伊万诺沃。
47.Chris Ward, Russia’s Cotton Workers and the New Economic Policy: Shopfloor Culture and State Policy, 1921–1929 (Cambridge, England, 1990), 85; Deviatyi vsesoiuznyi s”ezd professional’nykh soiuzov SSSR: stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow, 1933), 632; Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR, 19; Sotsialisticheskoe stroitel’stvo SSSR: statisticheskii ezhegodnik (Moscow, 1934), 34; RGASPI,f.81, op. 3, d. 49, l. 125.
48.Narodnoe khoziaistvo Ivanovskoi promyshlennoi oblasti [IPO]: statistikoekonomicheskii spravochnik (Ivanovo, 1932), 6; David Mandel, “The IvanovoKineshma Workers in War and Revolution,” in Strikes, Social Conflict and the First World War: An International Perspective, ed. Leopold Haimson and Giulio Sapelli (Milan, 1992), 501–502.
49.Korneev, Tekstil’naia promyshlennost, 187; Trud i profdvizhenie, 4; Raiony IPO, 1:29; Vsesoiuznaia perepis naseleniia 1926 goda (hereafter, 1926 Census; Moscow, 1929–1931), 34:124 –125; 19:434, 451, 474, 561. On craft identity, see Chris Ward, “Languages of Trade or a Language of Class? Work Culture in Russian Cotton Mills in the 1920s,” in Making Workers Soviet, 194–219.
50.A. G. Rashin, Zhenskii trud v SSSR (Moscow, 1928), 8; Rashin, “Dinamika promyshlennykh kadrov SSSR za 1917–1958 gg.,” in Izmeneniia v chislennosti i sostave sovetskogo rabochego klassa: sbornik statei, ed. D. A. Baevskii (Moscow, 1961), 61; Trud i profdvizhenie, 86; GARF, f. 5457, op. 12, d. 200,l.14.
51.Engel, “Women, Men, and the Languages of Peasant Resistance”; Lynne Viola, “Bab’i Bunty and Peasant Women’s Protest during Collectivization,” Russian Review 45, no. 1 (1986): 23– 42; BobroffHajal, Working Women.
52.1926 Census, 19:434, 451, 474, 561. According to this source, the crafts of card tender, picker tender, and mule spinner employed roughly equal numbers of men and women.
53.A. Rashin, Sostav fabrichnozavodskogo proletariata SSSR (Moscow, 1930), 166; V. V. Il’inskii, Ivanovskii tekstil’shchik: sostav i sotsial’naia kharakteristika rabochikhtekstil’shchikov v Ivanovskoi promyshlennoi oblasti (Ivanovo, 1930), 18–20 (quote, 19). According to Il’inskii (21–22), the typical IIR operative had stazh in 1929 of 13.7 years (for male operatives, the figure was 14.7 years; for women, 13.2 years). According to Rashin (168), stazh for the average Soviet worker at this time was just twelve years.
54.Il’inskii, Ivanovskii tekstil’shchik, 22–24; Rashin, Sostav, 13–14, 168. Cotton and linen mills boasted relatively low rates of labor turnover even during the FFYP. Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR, 449– 451. On the party’s ambivalence about laborforce stability, see the speech delivered by Kaganovich at a May 1932 conference on the crisis in the textile industry. RGASPI, f. 81, op. 3, d. 49, 133–134.
55.Il’inskii, Ivanovskii tekstil’shchik, 40 – 41; Ward, Russia’s Cotton Workers, 199– 204.
56.Il’inskii, Ivanovskii tekstil’shchik, 43, 45– 48, 53; Rashin, Sostav, xv–xvi. According to Il’inskii (p. 45) and contrary to Bolshevik assumptions, there was little difference in the literacy rate between urban and rural mills as a whole.
57.Statistics are from Il’inskii, Ivanovskii tekstil’shchik, 53. The pathologies of the workingclass family posed a threat to laborforce productivity and thus were condemned by the trade union as the program of forced capital accumulation got under way. For example, see GT, 2/17/28, 5; 2/19/28, 5; 3/3/28, 5; 4/21/28, 5; 4/27/28, 6; 5/6/28, 5; 9/14/28, 5; and 9/20/28, 5.
58.1926 Census, 56:x–xi, 21, 23, 25.该研究还发现,莫斯科金属工人家庭中,82.9%的家庭是由一对夫妻组成的,而只有4%的家庭是单亲家庭。对于莫斯科的工厂工人来说,这两个数字分别是74.1%和11.5%。1926 Census, 56:9, 11, 13, 21, 23, 25.
59.Il’inskii, Ivanovskii tekstil’shchik, 55– 61; 1926 Census, 53:210; M. O. Braginskii, Zhilishchnyi vopros v tekstil’noi promyshlennosti (Moscow, 1927); Narodnoe khoziaistvo IPO, 34 –35; GARF, f. 5457, op. 12, d. 23, ll. 164 –165 (“politically”). 市政住宅主要由商人和实业家的旧居组成。合作住房是工人们自己投资的新建筑。Il’inskii, Ivanovskii tekstil’shchik, 56–57.
60.人口普查的定义是不完善的,因为财产往往以男性而不是女性家庭成员的名义登记,而且还有各种主观和客观的方式可以使工人与土地“捆绑”在一起。
61.Il’inskii, Ivanovskii tekstil’shchik, 25–26, 28; Rashin, Sostav, 167.
62.Il’inskii, Ivanovskii tekstil’shchik, 28–30, 32, 38–39; Semenov, Litso, 30. Stazh figures (from Rashin, Sostav, 38) are for the IIR cotton industry. Data from a 1932 analysis of Vichuga’s mills confirmed that workers with ties to the land were among the industry’s most experienced. TsDNIIO, f. 327, op. 5, d. 162, l. 9.
63.Semenov, Litso, 10 –12, 14 –15. According to Semenov (p. 12), the typical rural operative was a veteran female worker—most likely, a weaver—with a family of her own.
64.Il’inskii, Ivanovskii tekstil’shchik, 62– 64; Rashin, Sostav, 169; RGASPI, f. 89, op. 3, d. 8, ll. 38–39.
65.Mandel, “The IvanovoKineshma Workers,” 498– 499.
66.Koenker and Rosenberg, Strikes and Revolution, 292–298; William B. Husband, “Local Industry in Upheaval: The IvanovoKineshma Textile Strike of 1917,” Slavic Review 47, no. 2 (1988): 448– 463.
67.William B. Husband, Revolution in the Factory: The Birth of the Soviet Textile Industry, 1917–1920 (Oxford, 1990), 47–121, 166 (“economic”); Trud v SSSR, 94; Korneev, Tekstil’naia promyshlennost, 111. 从1913年到1921年,纺织业的就业和年产量下降了三分之二以上,其中大部分下降发生在内战期间。SSSR za 15 let: statisticheskie materialy po narodnomu khoziaisvu (Moscow, 1932), 94; Clarke, Soviet Economic Facts, 80.
68.这一政策是新经济政策的基石,也被称为smychka,它在城镇和村庄之间建立了意识形态和经济联盟。1928年,它被废弃,标志着“自上而下”革命的开始。
69.Ward, Russia’s Cotton Workers, 197.
70.On the emasculation of state policy under the NEP, see Ward, Russia’s Cotton Workers, 197, 261, 264. On the rhetoric of class war, see Kuromiya, Stalin’s Industrial Revolution, 316 –318.
https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/188618787
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2020.07.12 13:11 ssp92 How true crime documentaries lie to you: Rodney Reed on "Death Again"

True crime shows will sometimes lie to the viewer. Often they will embellish the story to make it more entertaining, but at other times they have a clear agenda with their portrayal of the case, as seen with this 2 minute clip:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=64h2K8IHGfI
The above video clip is from the A&E TV show "Dead Again" which ran from 2014-2015. The premise of the show relies on seasoned detectives re-investigating closed cases, with new eyes and no biases. Sometimes they go against the official ruling on the case, finding the true perpetrators. It sounds noble enough, but as you'll come to learn, the show is often misleading and leaves out crucial details of the crime, in order to bolster their narrative regarding the case. In this case, they try to make, at the time of filming soon to be executed, Rodney Reed appear innocent through lies of omission.
For those not familiar with the case that convicted Reed, I'll provide a short overview, before we continue.
Short overview of the case:
On April 23th, 1996, Stacey Stites failed to show up for her 3:30 am shift at the supermarket H.E.B in Bastrop, Texas. A worried coworker called Stites’ mother early that morning, and a search was started. Around 8 am, her vehicle was found in the parking lot at Bastrop high school. The same day at approximately 3pm, her partially clothed body was discovered by a passerby. The body showed signs of rape; the fly on her pants was broken, and semen was found inside her vaginal cavity. The prime suspect was her fiancé, Jimmy Fennell, a junior officer with the Giddings police force. His DNA however didn't match the DNA in the body and investigators found he couldn’t physically have gotten from Giddings to Bastrop and back in the allowed timeframe. The case then went cold for almost 1 year, until Police matched the DNA with an African American man named Rodney Reed. Reed was sentenced to death in 1998, and has since his trial claimed that he was in a secret relationship with Stacey Stites, but that her fiancé found out, killed her and framed Reed for the crime. A defense which gained some credence in 2007, when Jimmy Fennell pleaded guilty to an unrelated rape, and was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
I will not go into further depth regarding Reed's guilt, as this is not what this post is about.
"Dead Again" vs the Court documents:
0:00
0:15
Chris Aldridge, who is Reed’s cousin and has a long arrest record, has been taken in multiple lies and or inconsistencies in his affidavits, which is the likely reason why the defense didn’t call on him to witness at trial. Aldridge claims that when he first meet Stacey, she was driving a large full-size pick-up truck. [https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/17/17-1093/34075/20180201153354587_Rodney%20Reed%20--%20Appendix.pdf - page 178a] However: “The trial judge found that the only truck Stacey drove belonged to Fennell and that it was not a full-size truck.” https://law.justia.com/cases/texas/court-of-criminal-appeals/2008/17748.html
Furthermore, Aldridge said at one time prior to the murder, Fennel had driven up Aldridge and Reed in a Bastrop sheriff department vehicle and threatened Reed. At the time Fennell wasn’t with the Bastrop sheriff department. He was a junior officer with Giddings police force, having no reason to be driving a Bastrop police vehicle. [https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/17/17-1093/34075/20180201153354587_Rodney%20Reed%20--%20Appendix.pdf - page 178a]
Aldridge also stated that he knew that the man was Fennell, because Fennell had booked had him into jail in the past. The bookings sheets of Aldridge however found that Fennell hadn’t been Aldridge’s jailor at any point. [https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/17/17-1093/34075/20180201153354587_Rodney%20Reed%20--%20Appendix.pdf – page 179a]
Lastly Aldridge claimed that Reed, Stacey and himself would drive around and smoke crack cocaine. Testing did not reveal Stacey to be a user of cocaine. Likewise was her H.E.B employment drug screening negative for any drugs. Hair sample analysis found that she hadn’t been a user cocaine in the last 32 months of her life. [https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/17/17-1093/34075/20180201153354587_Rodney%20Reed%20--%20Appendix.pdf - page 179a]
As you can see there is good reason not to trust Chris Aldridge as Reed's alibi and as a witness to the alleged affair.
0:35:
Initial, very broad, DQ-Alpha DNA testing could not exclude the victim, Stacey Stites and two cops, Ed Selmela/Salmela (spelling differs), who was investigating the murder, and lastly David Hall, who is the best friend they are referring to in the clip. [https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/17/17-1093/34075/20180201153354587_Rodney%20Reed%20--%20Appendix.pdf - page 125a]
A more thorough polymarker DNA test done by the defense’s own expert, Dr. Johnson however, ruled out all three as contributors of the DNA on the beer cans in 1998. [https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/17/17-1093/34075/20180201153354587_Rodney%20Reed%20--%20Appendix.pdf - page 181a][https://70659d40-1bda-4ecf-9620-35ee056757e2.filesusr.com/ugd/235808_1de45a41ffd241b58973b742c5a617b7.pdf - page 24]
It is very misleading of them to say that David Hall was a match, when he in reality he just couldn’t be excluded initially- and it’s further nullified when he was eventually totally ruled out as the contributor of the DNA by a more exhaustive test.
1:03:
1:21:
David Hall has an alibi for the night of the murder. His wife Carla Hall testified that she was sure he was in bed with her at 3:30 am because their 2 month old daughter woke them both up by screaming. There’s no proof that he was out of the house on the night of the murder, making this theory unlikely. [https://70659d40-1bda-4ecf-9620-35ee056757e2.filesusr.com/ugd/235808_1de45a41ffd241b58973b742c5a617b7.pdf - page 206-207]
Reed's counsel has still not presented a possible explanation for how Fennell could have dumped the body and truck in Bastrop, but could have been back in Giddings at about 6:45 am when Stacey's mother called him on the landline in apartment he shared with Stacey. [https://70659d40-1bda-4ecf-9620-35ee056757e2.filesusr.com/ugd/235808_fe76d15949a44c01abf1f30528ec2b9a.pdf - page 69-70] We know that Stacey's body wasn't where it would later be found, at 4:00 am, because a newspaper-delivery person didn't see it on their route through the area. [https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/17/17-1093/34075/20180201153354587_Rodney%20Reed%20--%20Appendix.pdf - page 112a] Futhermore The patrol-officer who found the truck, before Stacey was reported missing, didn't notice it on his prior drive though area around the high school, but it made a note of it and reported it in at 5:23 am. [https://70659d40-1bda-4ecf-9620-35ee056757e2.filesusr.com/ugd/235808_e2acea13faee428d8fee741fc63b438e.pdf - page 117-118] This means the perpetrator would have dumped the truck somewhere after 4:00 am but before 5:23 am, giving Fennell less than 3 hours to make the trip back to Giddings. Without a vehicle, the trip from Bastrop to Giddings takes approximately 8 hours. [https://www.google.com/maps/di30.118013,-97.3119575/30.1834133,-96.9373937/@30.1673854,-97.4046005,10z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!4m1!3e2] Investigators checked the mileage of the Giddings police vehicles as well the records of taxi fares on the night of the murder, and found nothing. [https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/17/17-1093/34075/20180201153354587_Rodney%20Reed%20--%20Appendix.pdf - page 114a]
1:31:
The jury didn't get to hear it, because as I pointed out above, the DNA on the beer cans was ruled as not relevant to the case, based on the exclusion found during the more thorough polymarker test.
The show is making it appear as if the prosecution was deliberately not releasing evidence that could hurt their case of putting a possibly innocent man behind bars; thus making them look very untrustworthy if not directly corrupt. The truth is that the evidence was faulty to begin, and best case scenario could have been used to mislead the jury into acquitting, based only on a partial match, which was already ruled out at trial.
All of the evidence they bring up in this short clip from 2015 was put to bed the by courts as far back as 2001, during Reed's evidentiary hearing. [https://70659d40-1bda-4ecf-9620-35ee056757e2.filesusr.com/ugd/235808_0a6c3dcfcc554e4fb534c3a7d28a7c97.pdf - page 78-79]
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2020.03.17 12:41 Bigcat0 21 Jobs in Cincinnati Hiring Now!


Company Name Title City
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Hey guys, here are some recent job openings in Cincinnati. Feel free to comment here or send me a private message if you have any questions, I'm at the community's disposal! If you encounter any problems with any of these job openings please let me know that I will modify the table accordingly. Thanks!
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2019.10.29 23:23 TimeImpact2430 I am 23, a Social Impact Project Manager, and make $115,000 a year in New York City

Retirement balance:
Emergency Fund Balance: $14,000
Big Ticket Item + Travel/Fun Fund Accounts: $2500-$3000 minimum per month (just created these accounts). All of my savings before were filtered into emergency fund (I unfortunately had a couple of emergencies this year so I had to re-top it). The total is 6 months worth of expenses.
Credit card debt: $0 • I pay in full every month
Student loan debt: $0 • I studied Social Work at a private university. I received a full-tuition merit scholarship and am extremely grateful for it. My rent/living expenses were paid with a combination of outside scholarships my first year, multiple jobs (I generally worked between 2-3 jobs at a time during school) and my parents.
Income Main Job Monthly Take Home: $2,048 every two weeks. • My primary salary has changed a lot in the past year. Last Fall I got a job making $55,000. At the beginning of 2019, NYC law changed and my salary received an increase to $60,000. In July I officially received a promotion I had fought hard for, and my salary went up to $70,000. After a lot of debate, however, I ended up taking another job in mid-September which I started today (mid-October). This new job pays $92,000, but I will be contributing fully to my 403b, so my take home will roughly be the same. This take home reflects what it will be starting in January. Without the 403b decrease, each paycheck is $2,747.
Side Hustle: I’m a fitness instructor part-time so this income varies (based on how much I teach/work). I estimate $25,000 take home this year. I started this job in May. At my peak I was teaching 20-25 classes a week but I’ve since slowed down a ton, and now teach 7-10 on average.
Expenses
Rent: $1,795/month • I live in a 1B1BA alone. I had a toxic roommate situation in an apartment that was nicer (and cheaper) but was much further away from my jobs, and was more strenuous on my life overall. I’m very happy to live alone.
Renters insurance: ~$130 for the year
Chase Sapphire Preferred fee: $95 for the year
Electric and gas: $60-100 (I haven’t experienced a winter here yet but I would assume it could go up to $100).
Wi-Fi: $42.50 for my share
Cellphone: $75 • I pay my parents to be on the family plan. They switched to Verizon a little over a year ago at my insistence (our other provider was awful) and they only got unlimited data for my benefit, so I’m definitely being undercharged.
Spotify Premium: $11 per month
Netflix: Parents plan
Hulu: Paused this subscription when the Handmaid’s Tale ended
Day 1:
6:00 AM: Wake up and lounge in bed for the next hour. I got back from Toronto last night and had an awful migraine, so I passed out around midnight as soon as I got home. I drift in and out of sleep for the next few hours.
8:10 AM: Wake up and still have a slight migraine. I drink water and organize my room. Today is my first day of my new job – a full-time remote position. I feel good about the switch I made, but it will be interesting to make this transition. My last day at my old job was last Friday (it is now Wednesday) so I took the few days in between to eat my way through Toronto.
8:30 AM: I shower, get dressed, and brush my teeth. I start to look through the onboarding documents that my manager sent over last night.
9:00 AM: The workday officially begins! I work in project management, and my new company is based in the Midwest, so their day doesn’t start yet, however my schedule is on East Coast time. I receive a ton of greetings on Slack from those up early in the Midwest, and my East Coast counterparts.
11:00 AM: I have a virtual meeting with one of my colleagues. He’s extremely helpful, and I’m able to sort through a few technical questions. Being a few hours ahead means that I was able to do a lot of stuff on my own this morning, which I’m grateful for. Although I only graduated a few years ago, all of my positions have been largely self-directed. I was given a great deal of autonomy particularly in my last position (I was the only person in my location, and I largely controlled my schedule, who I met with, where I went, etc). My new organization is larger and definitely has more structure, but since I’m a full-time remote person, there is a great deal of trust that has to be given at the outset.
11:30 AM: I go to a local cookie shop and get a dark chocolate peanut butter cookie ($3.81). On my way back I also get Advil from CVS ($4.99), and groceries. I buy Spinach Riccotta pasta, honey, ($20.81).
12:00 PM: I chat with my manager! She seems very easy to speak to. The conversation is mostly her providing updates on the company, and changes that have occurred since I interviewed.
5:00 PM: More meetings and onboarding documents. I’ve been told that there isn’t an expectation that people work past 5 PM their time, but since it’s my first day I don’t want to log off early. I stay online until 5:20 and then head out for a panel at NYU Law School.
6:00 PM: I arrive at the panel and there is FOOD! I grab falafel, pita, salad, hummus, and water. This panel is on Rodney Reed, a Black man who is scheduled to be executed on November 20, in Texas. In 1996, he was accused of killing a white woman, Stacey Stites, who (to his own admission, which was corroborated by witnesses) he was in a secret relationship with. She was also dating a white cop at the time. All of the evidence points to corruption, and that her boyfriend/the police officer killed her. The medical examiner in that case has come forward and said that the time frame he estimated she was killed was solely based on the word of the local police and Stites’ boyfriend. DNA testing has NEVER been done, and the Texas courts continue to deny requests for DNA testing. Reed’s legal team has been fighting this battle for 20 years, and after the courts sat on a decision for 4 of those years, this summer they returned with a verdict that the appeal was denied, and his execution date was set for November.
Stites’ family believes that she was killed by her boyfriend at the time (this man was also convicted years after for sexually abusing women he detained), and that it was covered up by local police forces and government officials due to small town politics.
I leave the panel having signed up for more information from the Reed Justice Initiative, and the Innocence Project. I also reach out to a few contacts I have to see if they have heard about it, and how we can press forward.
8:10 PM: The panel ends, and I go to work out. I am a fitness instructor part-time, so when I go to classes at my studio they are free.
9:30 PM: Class is over! I head out into the rain to go home.
9:35 PM: This subway station is closed  I head to the next one 10 blocks away.
9:45 PM: Okay, what the hell. This station is also closed, but nothing on Google Maps or the Subway Tracker says so. The attendant says I need to go the 6 or the 1 train, but I need a completely different line out of Manhattan. She says the train is running 7 blocks up.
9:52 PM: MTA please get your life together. As soon as I walk in, I see an attendant red-taping the platform. There are only 3 train lines running (out of 8) at this station, none of which get me where I need to go, or near it. Instead of Ubering, I get on the F, and then take the bus.
11:00 PM: Finally home. I make the pasta I bought today, take of all of my clothes and decide to clean tomorrow. I call my grandmother as I cook.
11:30 PM: I call my mom. She’s now retired and is usually up late. My niece is with her, and we laugh as my niece (who is 3) uses my presence on the phone as an excuse to not go to sleep. My mom says she’s too elderly for this and that my sister and I were much easier to put to bed.
12:30 AM: I go to sleep with Hocus Pocus playing in the background.
TOTAL: $29.61
Day 2:
8:00 AM: In an ideal world, I would have gone to workout this morning. Instead I languish in the fact that I didn’t have to set an alarm. Some weeks, I teach early classes every morning and it shows. When I only teach the classes that I have to (and don’t sub) I get to be lazy and sleep in (read: not have to wake up between 3 and 4 AM, to teach at 5 AM). Add in working from home now, and I don’t know how to act.
9:00 AM: Get online and start pushing through onboarding docs. I make notes of my questions and follow ups in a separate document, and look at tools to organize me.
3:00 PM: I finally buy a couch. I didn’t start really living in this apartment until September because I was always at one of my jobs (70+ hour weeks), traveling for work, or volunteering. My door frame is extremely small, so I finally find one that will clear the frame. I purchase from Home Reserve (where they ship the couch in small boxes so I can build it myself… this will be interesting). They put a holding charge on my card ($1,121).
Oh the joys of living in NYC (-: In the midst of this, I buy two specialty cookies ($7.68)
6:20 PM: Meet up with a client from my old job! I’ve been gone less than a week, but it will be good to see her. My last position was extremely client-facing and I became closer to them than many of the people at my own company. I arrive to find the client I was supposed to meet with has invited others as a post-going away party for me.
9:00 PM: One of my clients has a habit of ordering rounds for the table (and often, I don’t hear her do it). Last time I tried to push back and it didn’t work – and after 4 (very strong) drinks I ended up still drunk the next morning. Therefore, when I hear her order a third round I go back and forth with her and the waiter to not bring one for me. The waiter ends up bringing it anyway, and I push it off to the rest of the table, since I have to teach early tomorrow morning. As a going away present, they cover the bill.
9:30 PM: I am hungry so I order tofu Pad thai, stick rice, and spring rolls, and pick up the order down the block. I include a $3 tip. ($21.91)
9:45 PM: I get home, eat my food, and try to go to sleep.
TOTAL: $29.59
Day 3:
3:30 AM: Wake up before my alarm. Not time yet, so I try to go back to sleep, anxious that I’ll oversleep.
5:10 AM: Wake up for real this time. I was petrified I’d oversleep/not hear my alarm (this anxiety repeats itself any time I have an early class, regardless of circumstance) so I play it cautiously, not really letting my body go back to sleep. I get dressed, wash my face/brush my teeth, and pack an overnight bag to go to my parents house. I run to the subway when I realize that I’m cutting it close. I make it onto the train with roughly 25 seconds to spare.
5:55 AM: Get off in Manhattan and walk to the fitness studio. I love Manhattan in the mornings when there isn’t as much foot traffic.
6:03 AM: Walk into my studio and start setting up for class. The front desk staff and one of my regulars come in early and we chat. I start my class at 6:30, and then teach a second at 7:30.
8:30 AM: Done! The second class was fun – a couple of new people, many regulars, and two other instructors took it.
8:45 AM: I’m hungry and before I go to my parent’s house I want to eat (I’m a vegetarian, and most of the food in their house is meat-based). I made the mistake of not bringing food as I rushed this morning, so I buy cauliflower crust basil pizza and a cookie ($10.34)
9:00 AM: I answer a few slack messages, check my email, and head to the train. I purchase a train ticket to Westchester ($11.75)
9:43 AM: While commuting, I work on my laptop during the 45-minute ride. I see that I got paid from my fitness job (two weeks) so I deposit my check into my Roth IRA ($2,155). Due to my income changes throughout the year, I still qualify to contribute to a Roth. I have $400 in cash that I will put toward the couch, as well as money in my checking that will cover the rest (in anticipation of my original couch purchase which was the same cost).
10:30 AM: I arrive in my hometown and my mom picks me up at the train station.
6:00 PM: Well, that was a bust. I originally came to assist my mom with setting up an app for wireless cameras that were being installed. She didn’t realize that an electrician needed to be called beforehand, so the digital security company will come back another day. I finish up meetings, and log off for the day.
7:30 PM: I’m hungry and there’s little food in the house that isn’t meat. I go to McDonald’s and a local pizza place (next door to each other, don’t roast me) and get a slice of cheese pizza, medium French fries, and a hot fudge sundae ($8.65).
10:00 PM: Watch a movie as I chat with D. We met a little over two months ago, and have been on a couple of dates since then. He’s currently visiting his home country in Europe. I’m still deciding how I feel about him. I guess this would be a good time to mention that I am polyamorous – even as a kid, I never understood the idea of being with one person for the rest of my life. As an adult, I believe that love isn’t finite, and I have a ton of room in my life for different types of love, romantic or otherwise – and I want the same for my partners. I have a host of friends who disagree with me on this, but it works for me. I’m always upfront with the people I date about this (it’s also listed in all of my dating profiles).
The interesting thing about D is the age difference – he’s almost double my age at 45 (and is extremely attractive). Full disclosure – my age range on dating apps is set fairly wide because I want to see what’s out there. We chatted for a while and when we met I had to ask him why his age range was set to include someone so young. Some of my friends call my style “too forward” but I had to know – some men (in my experience) like younger women because of a perceived power dynamic. I’ve (both casually and seriously) dated older men in the past, and have had nothing but positive experiences – so I hoped that would be the case with D.
Tonight we speak of the best cocktails in his home city, which leads to a discussion about drinking cultures in different places we’ve lived.
Soon after, I pass out for the night.
TOTAL: $30.74
Day 4:
8:00 AM: Wake up and go for a run.
8:45 AM: Short run, but I have to get ready to teach. I shower, get dressed, say goodbye to my parents, and get on the train back to the city ($11.25).
10:30 AM: Once I arrive at Grand Central, I get a subway ride to my studio.
11:00 AM: Arrive at the studio, chat with a few regulars that stroll in, and wait for the previous class to end so we can use the studio.
2:30 PM: And I’m done! The first two classes were super strong, and the last class had a lot of new people which was also fun. I get on the subway and head home, determined to take a nap.
10:00 PM: After being in bed half of the day, I get a burst of energy and decide to be semi-productive. I go to the grocery store and get lettuce, tomatoes, salsa, tortillas, pasta, taco seasoning, cheese, meatless crumbles, and an apple pie ($34.20). once I get back home, I put the apple pie in the oven, and start to prepare tacos. I’m not the best cook, but I’m trying to get better, and since I’m working from home full time I don’t have an excuse to not cook more often. There was a time when my schedule was so busy and I ate out for almost every meal. I’ve come a long way since then but still have so far to go.
12:00 AM: The pie is finished and so is the food! I eat, and look up train schedules for the morning, and I’m headed to Conneticut to meet with a former coworker.
12:50 AM: Head to bed.
TOTAL: $45.45
Day 5:
8:00 AM: Wake up and check the weather. It’s going to rain later on, so I pack my umbrella and coordinate with my coworker.
10:00 AM: Leave for CT! Stamford is accessible by train for me, and about 30 min away for her (she’s driving). I take a local bus to Harlem, and then buy a ticket at the train station ($11.50).
11:30 AM: My friend and I find each other and catch up! We haven’t seen each other since she resigned at the end of August. Our former company wasn’t the best for her mental health (and mine either, frankly) and I’m extremely relieved to hear she’s thriving. We head to a nearby diner that came recommended by her family member, and there’s a 20-minute wait. I tell her about all of the drama that occurred after I resigned, and she fills me in on things she’s heard since my departure.
Once we sit, I try to be healthy and order an omelette with green peppers, onions, tomatoes, and cheddar cheese. She gets a short stack of pancakes and coffee. She quit our former job without having another lined up because it had gotten to be too toxic, and moved in with her parents again, but is now in the process of interviewing. I insist on getting the bill, but she wrestles the check away from me and pays for it, since I spent more time traveling to her, and had to pay for train tickets.
1:00 PM: It was so wonderful to see her. We hug and part ways, and I head back on the train to NY. On the way, I decide to take a HIIT class tonight. Once I get back home, I change, and head out.
6:30 PM: That was a great class but fuck - my back. It was extremely hard (and I’ve been to this instructor’s class before so I knew it would be). However, I’ve had a back injury for years, and this class really aggravated it. I had a weak core growing up and, not knowing the proper methods to train it, compensated by bearing weight in my lower back during athletics. It wasn’t until I became a fitness instructor that I was able to begin to correct some of my techniques.
I never went to the doctor because the pain came and went, and lower back pain is so common that I thought I was being whiny (which I try not to do now, because Black women in health are often discredited when it comes to pain).
7:00 PM: I get home, heat up leftover taco ingredients (deconstructed, because I’m too lazy to put it together) of meatless crumbles, lettuce, tomato, salsa, and a toasted tortilla with melted cheese. take Tylenol, and try to rest (on and off), alternating between ice and heat packs. I put a movie on in the background until 11 PM.
TOTAL: $11.50
Day 6:
4:00 AM: Rise and shine! Just kidding – it’s still dark outside.
6:00 AM: Need to get up and do something. I go for a walk, and scold myself for not going to a fitness class.
9:00 AM: Start work. I feel super slovenly this morning, and try not to hyper-focus on how I feel about my body. I make stovetop oatmeal with vanilla soy milk.
This probably would also be a good time to mention that I have struggled with eating/exercise since adolescence. I was anorexic for 3 years, and then started binge eating and over-exercising. Right now, I would say my habits more so align with over-exercising but I’m working on it. In college, I would work out between 2-6 hours a day (which was doable since I didn’t sleep much, and worked in a gym). I miss how fit I was back then, but my eating habits were (and still are poor). I tried to get a therapist a few months back because I think everyone can benefit from it, but I called 4 people who were listed as having openings but no one responded. I will try again soon because I know I should, but I have to find the motivation.
The hard part about it is that I appear to be in shape, and I know that objectively I’m nit-picking, but it doesn’t stop me from being unhappy with the way I look/feel. I thought that becoming a fitness instructor would help me develop a healthier mindset, but I’ve struggled to find anyone in the fitness community that doesn’t have a negative obsession with eating or exercise – it’s so commonplace it’s almost cliché.
3:00 PM: I’ve been snacking on random things throughout the day (cheese, apples) and follow it up with a piece of pie.
5:00 PM: Head offline and decide I need to move my body. My back still hurts so I decide to take it easier in class today.
6:25 PM: Class was amazing but my back is killing me and I feel like crying (even though I modified everything). I chat with the instructor, and masochistically contemplate taking another class because I have a ton of energy (even though I’m in pain). I would go to a doctor, but my health insurance at my new job doesn’t kick in for another week and a half, and my health insurance at my last job terminated on my last day. I’m still covered under my parents, but the doctors in that network in the city are limited, and it takes a long time to get an appointment.
6:50 PM: My friends at the studio convince me to cook as opposed to buying Sweetgreen (I love them). As I head out I realize I have errands to run. I get on a train uptown to buy crochet hair for a new hairstyle.
7:10 PM: I find the crochet hair, but they only have two packs. A woman on YouTube said she only needed two, so I’m going to trust the process… and I’m probably going to look a hot mess express, but I’m trying! I buy the hair, and a crochet hook because I can never find mine. ($28.41)
7:55 PM: I waited so long for the bus that I went back in the hair store to look at wigs, but didn’t find any I wanted to spend money on right now. Finally the bus comes and it’s packed. Thankfully it’s only a few stops.
8:20 PM: I get off the bus and walk to the grocery store. There I buy apples, garlic, soy bacon, cheese, ice cream, lettuce, garlic toast, butter, meatless crumbles, and paper towel. ($42.07)
9:00 PM: Arrive home and start cooking. I realize I’ve barely eaten today, so I grab the first things my hands touch (spaghetti), throw it in a pot with a bit of oil and salt, and put garlic toast in the freezer. Almost in direct comparison to what I said about wanting to lose weight, I put four pieces of garlic toast on the pan, and about half a box of spaghetti. I eat over the course of the next hour, reflecting on the fact that I didn’t touch a vegetable today 
10:30 PM: Sleep.
TOTAL: $70.48
Day 7:
4:45 AM: Wake up to teach. I shower, brush my teeth, wash my face, change, and run out the door (again).
5:45 AM: On the train reading a spy novel I got from a Little Free Library across the street from my apartment last week. Not my usual genre, but it’s worth a shot.
6:08 AM: I arrive at the studio and set up. I decide to make a new playlist because I’m not feeling the one that I prepared for this week.
8:20 AM: Done! I walk to the subway and start fielding slack messages and emails.
9:00 AM: Back home, and turn on a Webinar I need to listen to for work while washing my hair, because it’s Wash day. If you know, you know.
3:00 PM: Meetings, meetings, meetings. I take a break to eat eggs with a tortilla. I don’t have a ton of friends in NYC, so I debated whether I should do anything for my birthday next week. I see that there is a roller-skating rink, and I ask 5 friends if they want to go. Only 1 person seems to be able to make it, so I’m going to take myself to a nice dinner instead using a gift card a friend got me last Christmas. One of my friends looks at second message I sent on the topic and doesn’t respond… lol alright then.
6:00 PM: I text with my ex. We dated for about 6 months earlier this year until I broke up with him because we weren’t compatible. I am a workaholic at times, and he was very much the opposite. He felt I wasn’t giving him enough attention and I felt that he didn’t support me enough in my career ambitions. Ironically enough, I think it worked out well for both of us – he is now dating a woman who is monogamous (and therefore, he has chosen to be monogamous), and right after we broke up, I got a promotion at my old job, and then soon moved to my current one.
He then tells me that his job offer got rescinded… shit. He had gotten tired of complaining about his job and applied for a new one. I helped him prepare for his interviews, gave feedback, etc. one night for about 4 hours. He found out in the course of texting me, and I try to figure out what to say – but there’s nothing that I can other than I’m sorry. The awful part is that today is his last day at his old job. He tells me the reason for the rescinded offer (his references gave him a lower than desired rating on punctuality) which he acknowledges is his fault. I finish my work for the evening and offer support.
8:00 PM: I sit and contemplate what will make me happy. I don’t know what I want from anything anymore. I’ve been questioning getting a graduate degree (I don’t want to go into debt after working so hard to avoid it); I have always had a plan but lately have been blasé about everything; I prefer to be alone all of the time. I chat with a friend about this via text, and we agree that we’re unsure if this is typical coming of age stuff, or typical depression stuff, or both.
10:00 PM: Head off to sleep, mentally preparing a checklist of things I need for my upcoming work trip.
TOTAL: $0.
Weekly Total: $1338.37
Food & Drink: $149.47
Fun/Entertainment: $0
Health: $4.99
Clothes & Beauty: $28.41
Home: $1,121
Transport: $34.50
Thoughts …
I spent a lot more this week because of the couch purchase. I know I have a habit of spending too much on food, and I’m trying to cook more. I also only purchase food in small quantities so I can cook it within a few days and a ton of food doesn’t go to waste. With that being said, I spent more on transport than usual, and I’ve found ways through this to trim the fat and contribute more to savings.
submitted by TimeImpact2430 to MoneyDiariesACTIVE [link] [comments]


2019.10.28 05:00 autotldr Rocky planets similar to the Earth were found to possibly be more common by measuring iron oxidation of bodies orbiting white dwarfs, alluding to a planet's analogous magnetic field and, consequently, habitability.

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 89%. (I'm a bot)
We exploit the elemental abundances observed in six white dwarfs polluted by the accretion of rocky bodies to determine the fraction of oxidized iron in those extrasolar rocky bodies and therefore their oxygen fugacities.
The results are consistent with the oxygen fugacities of Earth, Mars, and typical asteroids in the Solar System, suggesting that at least some rocky exoplanets are geophysically and geochemically similar to Earth.
Oxygen fugacities of rocky planets are often reported relative to the reference Iron-Wüstite equilibrium reaction Fe + O2 = FeO, such that ΔIW≡log(fO2)−log(fO2)IW. When expressed this way, differences in oxygen fugacity are nearly independent of temperature and pressure.
Polluted WDs with observed abundances of O, Mg, Si, Fe, Al, and Ca can be used to calculate oxygen fugacities from Eq. 1 by recognizing that any Fe not bonded to oxygen must have existed as metal in the accreted bodies.
We validated our method using Solar System bodies by converting the composition of these bodies into hypothetical polluted WDs, as if rocks from the bodies had accreted onto a WD. We used typical WD measurement uncertainties for these calculations and recovered the known intrinsic oxygen fugacities for Earth, Mars, Mercury, Vesta, and various chondritic bodies.
In either case, our results constrain the intrinsic oxygen fugacities of rocky bodies that orbited the progenitor star of their host WD. Our data indicate that rocky exoplanets constructed from these planetesimals should be geophysically and geochemically similar to rocky planets in the Solar System, including Earth.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: oxygen#1 body#2 fugacity#3 rock#4 Solar#5
Post found in /science and /Geedis.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]


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submitted by stroke_bot to nullthworldproblems [link] [comments]


2019.05.09 15:19 eventbot What's happening around town (Thu, May 9th - Tue, May 14th)

Oklahoma City's event list.

Ongoing

  • Hicks and Booneshine (Noir Bistro & Bar - Oklahoma City) Thru Mon, Nov 25th Live talk show with Spencer Hicks and Kristy Boone.…
  • Horseplay (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Thru Sun, Jul 14th See Tom Lovell's sketches and studies of horses in the latest Horseplay exhibit at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage…
  • Support Local Art Show at DNA Galleries (Plaza District - Oklahoma City) Thru Sun, Jun 9th Start Time: 6:00pm SUPPORT LOCAL ART SHOW. More details to TBA

Thursday, May 9th

  • 🎨 105th Annual OU School of Visual Arts Student Exhibition (Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art - Norman) Thru Sat, May 11th Start Time: 10:00am This competitive juried show is held each spring and highlights the diverse works of art created by students from the University of Oklahoma’s School of...
  • 🎨 American Indian Artists: 20th Century Masters (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Thru Sun, May 12th September 1 – May 12, 2019 American Indian Artists: 20th Century Masters As Lakota artist Oscar Howe wrote in 1958, “There is much more to Indian art, than pretty, stylized pictures.” This exhibition highlights this depth and the 20th century American masters who shaped it. Explore early artists such as the Kiowa Six, Tonita…
  • Ancient. Massive. Wild. - The Bison Exhibit (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Thru Sun, May 12th The Ancient. Massive. Wild. - The Bison Exhibit features North American bison artwork. Head to the National Cowboy & Western…
  • Art Adventures (Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art - Norman) Start Time: 10:30am
  • 😂 Brandon Vestal (Loony Bin Comedy Club - Oklahoma City) Thru Sat, May 11th
  • 🎭 The Comedy Magic & Mentalism of Max Krause 13+ (Max's Magic Theatre - OKC - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 9:15pm 13+ Ages
  • Cowboys in Khaki (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Thru Sun, May 12th
  • 🏆 Oklahoma City Dodgers vs. Nashville Sounds (Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark - Oklahoma City) 1 day left Start Time: 7:05pm
  • 🎓 Free Small Business Start-up Workshop (Norman Public Library - Norman) Start Time: 9:00am The City of Norman and the Pioneer Library System will host a Small Business Start-up workshop for aspiring entrepreneurs on Thursday, May 9, 2019. The...
  • 🏆 Greater Oklahoma Hunter Jumper Association (Lazy E Arena - Guthrie) Thru Sat, May 11th Start Time: 8:00am Join the Greater Oklahoma Hunter Jumper Association at their spring show at the Lazy E Arena!
  • Hopeful Horizons (Oklahoma History Center - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 6:30pm Parents Helping Parents Inc. presents Hopeful Horizons. This event features a raffle, music, hors d'oeuvres and desserts. Our guest speaker will be Sandy Swenson, author of Joey's Song: A Mother's Story of Her Son's Addiction.
  • 🎡 Looking For Something? (The Blue Door - Oklahoma City) Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 8:00pm Troubadour and formerly syndicated cartoonist Roy Schneider has developed a devoted fan base for his particular flavor of Americana music since 2008, through international radio airplay and consistent touring with life-and-stage partner Kim Mayfield. Playfully dubbed "Blue-Twangled Folk ‘n' Roll" in a 2014 No Depression interview, Schneider &…
  • Old 97s & Bob Schneider (The Jones Assembly - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 6:30pm To purchase tickets for this event, please visit our partner website HERE ! Doors at 6:30. Full bar and walk-up food window available. Rain or shine event. No re-entry. No refunds. No smoking. Under 16 must be accompanied by a parent or guardian. Support acts are subject to change without notice.
  • 🎨 Premium in Practice: Avoiding Common Brand Mistakes (Film Row - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 12:00pm Kami Huddleston and Ashley Bowen Murphy have seen just about everything when it comes to branding blunders and now they’re sharing their secrets to help...
  • Roy Schneider & Kim Mayfield (The Blue Door - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 8:00pm
  • 🍴 Saloon Series (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 6:00pm Stop by the Museum for a unique happy hour experience with Coop Ale Works! The Saloon Series is a four part tasting given by a knowledgeable connoisseur each class. Guests will enjoy new and exciting themed drinks while mingling in a saloon themed atmosphere. Admission is $30 at the door and includes a drink flight, tasting class, and hors…
  • Second Annual Veteran Service Awards (University of Central Oklahoma - Edmond) Start Time: 6:00pm In cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Veterans Affairs and the Oklahoma Veterans Pilot Program we are hosting the Second Annual Veterans Service...
  • 🎨 Seeing Now Opening Reception (Film Row - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 7:00pm Please join us for the opening reception of SEEING NOW. Enjoy a cocktail reception at 7pm with remarks by Chief Curator Alice Gray Stites, followed by a...
  • 🎨 Seen/Unseen: A Festival of Experimental Film (Oklahoma Contemporary - Oklahoma City) Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 7:30pm SEEN/UNSEEN will immerse audiences in a curated selection of experimental films ranging from the early works of groundbreaking filmmakers to current...
  • Chickasha Spring Auto Swap Meet (Chickasha) Thru Sat, May 11th The Chickasha Spring Auto Swap Meet is held on 40 acres just east of the Grady County Fairgrounds. Over 1,500 vendors will…
  • 🎓 Starting a Small Business (Norman Public Library - Norman) Start Time: 9:00am Are you dreaming of starting your own business? Join us for an overview of the business start-up process and learn about local resources. Registration...
  • 🏆 Three Thousand Thursday Thrills (Remington Park - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 9:00pm Thursday play in the Remington Park Casino gets a little richer in May. Just use your Club Remington Card when you play in the casino any day of the...
  • 🎭 Valorous: Senior Project Showcase (University of Central Oklahoma - Edmond) Start Time: 7:30pm Department of Dance will present our graduating seniors capstone choreography, as well as featured student works, for an evening of unique dance experiences.

Friday, May 10th

  • 2nd Friday Norman Art Walk (Norman Arts District - Norman) The 2nd Friday Norman Art Walk, a monthly celebration of the arts in Norman, connects the downtown arts district with…
  • 🎨 105th Annual OU School of Visual Arts Student Exhibition (Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art - Norman) 1 day left Start Time: 10:00am This competitive juried show is held each spring and highlights the diverse works of art created by students from the University of Oklahoma’s School of...
  • 405 LIVE! (ACTS Theatre - Oklahoma City) Day 1 of 2 Get ready for a night of deeply satisfying laughter as Oklahoma’s premier sketch comedy theatre, 405…
  • 2019 Spring CEPS Graduation Receptions (University of Central Oklahoma - Edmond) Start Time: 1:00pm Spring 2019 Graduates in the College of Education and Professional Studies (CEPS): You and your family are invited to attend the CEPS Graduation...
  • 🎨 American Indian Artists: 20th Century Masters (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Thru Sun, May 12th September 1 – May 12, 2019 American Indian Artists: 20th Century Masters As Lakota artist Oscar Howe wrote in 1958, “There is much more to Indian art, than pretty, stylized pictures.” This exhibition highlights this depth and the 20th century American masters who shaped it. Explore early artists such as the Kiowa Six, Tonita…
  • Ancient. Massive. Wild. - The Bison Exhibit (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Thru Sun, May 12th The Ancient. Massive. Wild. - The Bison Exhibit features North American bison artwork. Head to the National Cowboy & Western…
  • Big 12 Softball Championship (USA Softball Hall of Fame Complex - Oklahoma City) Day 1 of 2 Head to the USA Softball Hall of Fame Stadium Complex to cheer your team onto victory at the Big 12 Softball Championship.…
  • Bonnie Bishop (The Blue Door - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 8:00pm
  • 😂 Brandon Vestal (Loony Bin Comedy Club - Oklahoma City) 1 day left
  • Collective Soul in Concert (Grand Casino Hotel & Resort - Shawnee) If you're a Collective Soul fan, you won't want to miss out as this chart-topping rock band plays through their…
  • 😂 Comedian Billy Wayne Davis Live At The Paramount Room (The Paramount OKC - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 8:00pm
  • 🎓 Oklahoma City Community College Graduation (Cox Convention Center - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 7:30pm
  • Cowboys in Khaki (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Thru Sun, May 12th
  • 🎓 Dancing in the Gardens ft. the Salsa (Myriad Botanical Gardens - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 7:00pm PLEASE READ!! WE HAVE MOVED TO FRIDAY, MAY 10 DUE TO WEATHER! Dancing in the Gardens returns to our seasonal plaza Friday, May 10! It is one of the...
  • 🎨 David Holland The Skies Have It (Mainsite - Norman) Start Time: 6:00pm Norman Arts Council announces the exhibition and three-month residency of Oklahoma cloudscape artist David Holland from May through July 2019 at MAINSITE...
  • 🎨 Disney's The Jungle Book KIDS (ArtWorks Academy of Performing Arts - Norman) Start Time: 6:30pm ArtWorks Academy Presents DISNEY’S THE JUNGLE BOOK KIDS. Friday, May 10 at 6:30 pm Saturday, May 11 at 2:00 pm Saturday, May 11 at 3:30 pm Saturday, May...
  • 🏆 Oklahoma City Dodgers vs. Nashville Sounds (Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark - Oklahoma City) Last Day Start Time: 7:05pm
  • 🎓 Free Zumba (Guthrie Library - Guthrie) Start Time: 5:00pm Dress to sweat! Free Latin inspired dance fitness class. Space is Limited. RSVP. The City of Guthrie, OK - Municipal Government Guthrie Chamber of...
  • 🏆 Greater Oklahoma Hunter Jumper Association (Lazy E Arena - Guthrie) 1 day left Start Time: 8:00am Join the Greater Oklahoma Hunter Jumper Association at their spring show at the Lazy E Arena!
  • 🎨 Knotty Women, Twisted Sisters - Gallery Opening (The Depot - Norman) Start Time: 6:00pm The Depot Gallery, 200 S. Jones, hosts an opening reception for "Knotty Women, Twisted Sisters," the fiber art of Julie Marks Blackstone and Sue Moss...
  • LIVE on the Plaza: deadCENTER Takeover (Plaza District - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 6:00pm LIVE! on the Plaza is the Plaza District's free & monthly artwalk featuring art shows, live entertainment, great food and local shopping. For this month's LIVE, 19th annual deadCenter Film Festival is taking over!
  • 🎡 Looking For Something? (The Blue Door - Oklahoma City) Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 8:00pm Troubadour and formerly syndicated cartoonist Roy Schneider has developed a devoted fan base for his particular flavor of Americana music since 2008, through international radio airplay and consistent touring with life-and-stage partner Kim Mayfield. Playfully dubbed "Blue-Twangled Folk ‘n' Roll" in a 2014 No Depression interview, Schneider &…
  • Louis Goldberg w/ Special Guest (Oklahoma City University - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 8:00pm
  • Made in Oklahoma Fest (Reed Conference Center - Midwest City) Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 5:00pm The annual Made in Oklahoma Fest is a highly-anticipated celebration of local businesses, attracting more than a hundred…
  • 🏆 OU Track & Field: John Jacobs Invitational (University of Oklahoma - Norman)
  • 🎨 Red Joan (Oklahoma City Museum of Art - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 5:30pm “Joan Stanley (Judi Dench) is a widow living out a quiet retirement in the suburbs when, shockingly, the British Secret Service places her under arrest....
  • 🎨 Seen/Unseen: A Festival of Experimental Film (Oklahoma Contemporary - Oklahoma City) Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 7:30pm SEEN/UNSEEN will immerse audiences in a curated selection of experimental films ranging from the early works of groundbreaking filmmakers to current...
  • Shooter Jennings in Concert (Tower Theatre Studio - Oklahoma City) Honky tonk the night away when Shooter Jennings and special guest Vincent Neil Emerson take over Oklahoma…
  • Splatter / Death Squad / Amenaza (Blue Note - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 9:00pm SPLATTER (Austin, TX) https://bvirecords.bandcamp.com/album/splatter-crime-spree-ep AMENAZA (OKC) https://amenazapunx.bandcamp.com DEATH SQUAD (OKC)...
  • Chickasha Spring Auto Swap Meet (Chickasha) 1 day left The Chickasha Spring Auto Swap Meet is held on 40 acres just east of the Grady County Fairgrounds. Over 1,500 vendors will…
  • 🎓 Surreptitious: The After Work Social Mixer (Avenue 101 - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 5:00pm $10 Fishbowls $3 Hennessy Black $1 Beers $10 Hookah ($5 the 1st Hour) 3 Wine ::NO COVER::
  • A Whale of a Sale (Oklahoma City First Presbyterian Church - Oklahoma City) Day 1 of 2 Join the Junior League of Oklahoma City for an upscale rummage sale extravaganza during A Whale of a Sale. This fun, two-day…

Saturday, May 11th

  • 🎨 105th Annual OU School of Visual Arts Student Exhibition (Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art - Norman) Last Day Start Time: 10:00am This competitive juried show is held each spring and highlights the diverse works of art created by students from the University of Oklahoma’s School of...
  • 405 LIVE! (ACTS Theatre - Oklahoma City) Day 2 of 2 Get ready for a night of deeply satisfying laughter as Oklahoma’s premier sketch comedy theatre, 405…
  • 🎨 American Indian Artists: 20th Century Masters (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) 1 day left September 1 – May 12, 2019 American Indian Artists: 20th Century Masters As Lakota artist Oscar Howe wrote in 1958, “There is much more to Indian art, than pretty, stylized pictures.” This exhibition highlights this depth and the 20th century American masters who shaped it. Explore early artists such as the Kiowa Six, Tonita…
  • 🎭 Anchors Aweigh - Junior Theatre Production Auditions (Edmond Fine Arts - Edmond) Start Time: 9:00am Step aboard the S.S. Flounder and wash away with tides of laughter as mistaken identities, lively chase scenes and a storm that almost sets the entire...
  • Ancient. Massive. Wild. - The Bison Exhibit (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) 1 day left The Ancient. Massive. Wild. - The Bison Exhibit features North American bison artwork. Head to the National Cowboy & Western…
  • 🎨 Edmond Art Association Spring Show and Sale (Spring Creek Plaza - Edmond) Start Time: 10:00am Outdoor art event on the sidewalks of Spring Creek Plaza Shopping Center, Edmond. Local artists will display and offer for sale original art.
  • Beats & Bites Festival (Riverwind Casino - Norman) Feast on delicious entrees and snacks from various food trucks at Riverwind Casino's Beats & Bites music and food…
  • Big 12 Softball Championship (USA Softball Hall of Fame Complex - Oklahoma City) Day 2 of 2 Head to the USA Softball Hall of Fame Stadium Complex to cheer your team onto victory at the Big 12 Softball Championship.…
  • 🎓 Botanical Balance FREE Yoga (Myriad Botanical Gardens - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 8:00am Botanical Balance FREE YOGA presented by Fowler Toyota, sponsored by Tinker Federal Credit Union and Stephenson Cancer Center Tuesdays, 5:45 pm and Saturdays, 8 am Check in at the Visitor Center and find out location which changes depending on the season Instructors provided by This Land Yoga Bring a mat, water, and an “open mind”…
  • 😂 Brandon Vestal (Loony Bin Comedy Club - Oklahoma City) Last Day
  • Cowboys in Khaki (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) 1 day left
  • Curve with a Cause (Classen Curve - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 11:00am Children's Hospital Foundation Teen Board presents Curve with a Cause! Shopping discounts, live music and snacks on May 11 from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. at...
  • 🎓 The Damn Quails - Bryon White & Gabe Marshall on (The Blue Door - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 8:00am The Damn Quails started as a weekly jam session between two Oklahoma songwriters. Gabe Marshall and Bryon White met for a weekly gig that soon attracted all kinds of characters playing various instruments. These sessions quickly attracted a crowd, a semi-stable line-up was formed, and The Damn Quails were born. The band released their first…
  • Deep German Romanticism (Civic Center Music Hall - Oklahoma City) As the season closer for the Oklahoma City Philharmonic's Classic Concert Series, Alexander Mickelthwate conducts the…
  • Deuce-on-Deuce (Artspace At Untitled - Oklahoma City) Spend the evening relaxing as Jazz waves hit your ears from the Artspace at Untitled stage. Come see one of the finest local…
  • Edmond Farmer's Market (Festival Marketplace - Edmond) Start Time: 8:00am
  • 🏆 Greater Oklahoma Hunter Jumper Association (Lazy E Arena - Guthrie) Last Day Start Time: 8:00am Join the Greater Oklahoma Hunter Jumper Association at their spring show at the Lazy E Arena!
  • Great Strides Walk (Public Event) (Myriad Botanical Gardens - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 9:00am Great Strides Walk Saturday, May 11, 9am, check-in, 10am, walk Band Shell/Devon Lawn This is a public event being held at the Myriad Gardens. Visit Cystic Fibrosis website here for more details.
  • 🏃 Keller Williams Red Day 5K Run (Edmond) Start Time: 9:00am See website for details: http://www.centralokredday.com
  • Made in Oklahoma Fest (Reed Conference Center - Midwest City) Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 5:00pm The annual Made in Oklahoma Fest is a highly-anticipated celebration of local businesses, attracting more than a hundred…
  • National Mini Golf Day (Andy Alligator's Fun Park & Water Park - Norman) Start Time: 10:00am Take part in one of America’s favorite pastimes on National Miniature Golf Day at Andy Alligator’s! The first 100 guests to purchase an Unlimited Fun Wristband receive FREE Mini Golf for a year!
  • OKC Garden Fest (Myriad Botanical Gardens - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 9:00am Gardeners, plant lovers and cooking enthusiasts will enjoy the OKC Garden Fest at the Myriad Botanical Gardens in…
  • 🎨 Oklahoma Student Art Exhibition Take-In (Oklahoma State Fair Park - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 9:00am Oklahoma Student Art Exhibition presented by The Oklahoma State Fair • Open to all Oklahoma schools - public and private • Registration is free and opens...
  • Seed Bomb Walkup at Garden Fest (Myriad Botanical Gardens - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 11:00am Saturday, May 11, 11am – 2pm Children’s Garden Entrance $1 for 2 seed bombs All ages welcome Join us to make homemade seed bombs so you create color explosion flower gardens in your yard and neighborhood. We’ll have information about the types of seeds in our wildflower mix and how you’re helping out local pollinator and animal friends.
  • Chickasha Spring Auto Swap Meet (Chickasha) Last Day The Chickasha Spring Auto Swap Meet is held on 40 acres just east of the Grady County Fairgrounds. Over 1,500 vendors will…
  • A Whale of a Sale (Oklahoma City First Presbyterian Church - Oklahoma City) Day 2 of 2 Join the Junior League of Oklahoma City for an upscale rummage sale extravaganza during A Whale of a Sale. This fun, two-day…

Sunday, May 12th

  • 🎨 American Indian Artists: 20th Century Masters (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Last Day September 1 – May 12, 2019 American Indian Artists: 20th Century Masters As Lakota artist Oscar Howe wrote in 1958, “There is much more to Indian art, than pretty, stylized pictures.” This exhibition highlights this depth and the 20th century American masters who shaped it. Explore early artists such as the Kiowa Six, Tonita…
  • Ancient. Massive. Wild. - The Bison Exhibit (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Last Day The Ancient. Massive. Wild. - The Bison Exhibit features North American bison artwork. Head to the National Cowboy & Western…
  • Cowboys in Khaki (Western Heritage Museum - Oklahoma City) Last Day
  • Flowers & Sours for Mother’s Day at Oak & Ore (Plaza District - Oklahoma City) Start Time: 11:00am Cheers to you, Ma! We’ve rounded up a variety of deliciously tart brews and partnered with our friends at Curbside Chronicle to bring Flowers & Sours to the Plaza District on Mother’s Day!
  • OU Sooners vs OSU Cowboys (L. Dale Mitchell Baseball Park - Norman) Watch as the University of Oklahoma Sooners and Oklahoma State Cowboys go head to head during this year's Bedlam…

Monday, May 13th

  • Blessthefall in Concert (89th Street Collective - Oklahoma City) See metalcore band Blessthefall live as they take over 89th Street in Oklahoma City. Opening acts Slaves, Capsize and…

Tuesday, May 14th

  • Chisholm Creek Rooftop Hop (Chisholm Creek - Oklahoma City) This summer, prepare for ample live music opportunities. Each Tuesday night, head over to Chisholm Creek to enjoy Happy Hour…
  • Death Angel in Concert (89th Street Collective - Oklahoma City) Thrash metal band Death Angel layers punchy vocals on top of melodic, fast-paced guitar riffs. Established in the 1980s,…
  • Wheeler Criterium (Oklahoma City) Once the weather starts warming up, gather your crew and head south of the Oklahoma River for the Wheeler Criterium each and…

See Also

submitted by eventbot to okc [link] [comments]


2019.04.25 01:30 ReadItWithSarcasm Does anyone have a link to search home sales in Austin? - TCAD protest

I want to protest my property assessment value. Would like some data to back up my claim.
Does anyone know an (easy?) way to search for home sale numbers in my area?
Travis County records doesn't seem to be an easy way, and I'm not finding any home sale prices on there. Likewise, Zillow, Redfin, and other Real Estate stites seem sketchy on data as well.
submitted by ReadItWithSarcasm to Austin [link] [comments]


2016.11.30 19:25 necrochaos MAC Championship Preview Thread: Ohio Bobcats @ #17 Western Michigan Broncos

Ohio @ #10 Western Michigan
When: Friday, December, 2nd, 7:00 PM
Where: Ford Field, Detroit, Michigan
Watch: ESPN2, WatchESPN
Odds: Western Michigan by 18.5 pts.
Total Points: 59
Tickets Still Available
All-Time Series
Ohio and Western Michigan have met 61 times since 11/18/1939.
These teams last met 410 days ago on 10/17/2015.
Series Record: Ohio 28 - 1 - 32 Western Michigan
Current Win Streak 3 Western Michigan (2008-2015)
Team Largest MOV Longest Win Streak
Ohio 67-12 (1953) 5 (1949-1953)
Western Michigan 49-14 (2015) 10 (1986-1995)
The Last 5 Meeting(s)
Winner Date Location Ohio Western Michigan Notes
Western Michigan 10/17/2015 Athens, OH 14 49
Western Michigan 10/25/2014 Kalamazoo, MI 21 42
Western Michigan 10/4/2008 Kalamazoo, MI 20 41
Ohio 10/7/2006 Athens, OH 27 20
Western Michigan 9/27/2003 Athens, OH 32 39
Series Comparison Data via Winsipedia
Through Week 13
Week Ohio 8-4(6-2) Result Western Michigan 12-0(8-0) Result
1 Texas State 2-9(0-7) L 54-56 Northwestern 6-6(5-4) W 22-21
2 Kansas 2-10(1-8) W 37-21 North Carolina Central 9-2(8-0) W 70-21
3 Tennessee 8-4(4-4) L 19-28 Illinois 3-9(2-7) W 34-10
4 Gardner-Webb 5-6(3-2) W 37-21 Georgia Southern 4-7(3-4) W 49-31
5 Miami (OH) 6-6(6-2) W 17-7 Central Michigan 6-6(3-5) W 49-10
6 Bowling Green 4-8(3-5) W 30-24 Northern Illinois 5-7(5-3) W 45-30
7 Eastern Michigan 7-5(4-4) L 20-27 Akron 5-7(3-5) W 41-0
8 Kent State 3-9(2-6) W 14-10 Eastern Michigan 7-5(4-4) W 45-31
9 Toledo 9-3(6-2) W 31-26 BYE N/A
10 Buffalo 2-10(1-7) W 34-10 Ball State 4-8(1-7) W 52-20
11 BYE N/A Kent State 3-9(2-6) W 37-21
12 Central Michigan 6-6(3-5) L 20-27 Buffalo 2-10(1-7) W 38-0
13 Akron 5-7(3-5) W 9-3 Toledo 9-3(6-2) W 55-35
All rankings reflect the current /cfb poll
Ohio Injury Report
Last updated: November 30, 2016
Player Status Type Notes
Randy Stites Out Leg Stites suffered a broken bone in his leg against Kent State and will miss the remainder of the season.
Tyler Tupa Out Illness Tupa has sat out five straight games due to illness and will miss an undetermined amount of time.
A.J. Ouellette Out Foot Ouellette is expected to miss the season due to a foot injury.
Vinny Emanuele Out Head Emanuele has been held out of five consecutive games with a head injury and remains without an official timetable for a return.
Andrew Meyer Questionable Undisclosed Meyer missed the last game due to an undisclosed issue and is uncertain to play in the MAC Championship game against Western Michigan.
Tony Porter Questionable Foot Porter missed the last game with a foot injury and is uncertain to play against Western Michigan in the MAC Championship game.
Greg Windham Questionable Ankle Windham has missed the last three games due to an ankle injury and is uncertain to play in the MAC Championship game against Western Michigan.
Jared McCray Questionable Undisclosed McCray missed the last game due to an undisclosed issue and is uncertain to play in the MAC Championship game against Western Michigan.
Mayne Williams Questionable Head Williams missed the last game with a head injury and is uncertain to play against Western Michigan in the MAC Championship game.
Injury data lifted from: sports-reference.com
Western Michigan Injury Report
Last updated: November 30, 2016
Player Status Type Notes
Justin Ferguson Out Ankle Ferguson has an ankle injury and is expected to miss the remainder of the season.
Injury data lifted from: sports-reference.com
Fun MAC Championship Facts
Western Michigan has two MAC Championship appearances, 1999 and 2000, both against Marshall. Western Michigan lost both games.
Ohio has three MAC Championship appearances, 2006, 2009 and 2011, losing to Central Michigan in 06 and 09 and Northern Illinois in 2011.
The winner of this game will earn their first MAC Championship.
Largest crowd @ Ford Field for the MAC Championship? 2006 -> Ohio vs Central Michigan (25,483).
submitted by necrochaos to CFB [link] [comments]


2015.07.16 00:45 commentsrus The Economics of Prostitution Legalization: Some Notes [OC]

[This is for Cutlasss. Sorry for the delay.]
Question: Is prostitution illegalization bad economics?
A year or so ago I wrote my BA thesis on a niche topic within the already niche topic of the economics of prostitution. It was mostly an exercise in applying a sophisticated new method of regression analysis to a novel data set that I had stumbled upon, which just so happened to be data on prostitutes. However, my studies made me a bit familiar with the general literature surrounding the econ of prostitution: Theories of price setting, general equilibrium in sex, dating, and marriage markets, the externalities associated with illicit sexual activity, and much more. Here, I will briefly cover the salient features of this body of literature in order to comment on the question of whether or not prostitution should be made legal in the United States. I won't come up with a definitive answer, but I will cover the points one must keep in mind when discussing this question.
First I will highlight the costs and benefits of prostitution: Costs to the individual, costs to society, and benefits to the individual and society. Then I will cover the demand side of sex markets, the “johns”, and what little study has been done on them, even though some would argue that we should be cracking down on johns, not prostitutes, if we want to police sex markets.

Individual Costs

On the supply side, women choose to enter prostitution for a variety of reasons. On one hand, it is generally a low-skill profession with few restrictions to entry and the potential for high earnings. On the other hand, there are significant explicit and implicit costs associated with prostituting, including the risk and consequences of arrest (where prostitution is illegal), violence and exploitation from customers and managers, risk of contracting STDs (Potterat et al, 2003), low to almost non-existent options for advancement within the profession (Lim, 1998), and foregone marriage opportunities due to the stigma attached to the sex market (Edlund and Korn, 2002; Edlund et al, 2009).

Individual Benefits

The widespread persistence of prostitution around the world, however, implies that earnings or earnings potential compensate for or exceed the costs for those who prostitute. Evidence suggests that women with fewer prospects in the formal economy are selected into prostitution, likely due to the low opportunity costs (Lim, 1998; Edlund and Korn, 2002; Levitt and Venkatesh, 2007). Males, particularly those solicited by homosexual clients, enter the profession for similar reasons, at least those who are young or immigrants, although many are employed in the formal economy as well (Cameron et al, 1999). High-end escorts also experience flexible hours (Benson and Matthews, 1995; Cameron et al, 1999) and significantly higher wages than other prostitutes (Edlund et al, 2009). For both genders there is a significant premium associated with working in the sex sector (the proposed reasons for this premium are explored later) (Edlund and Korn, 2002; Cameron et al, 1999).
There is also an urban premium. Moffat and Peters (2004) utilize a unique dataset gathered from punternet.com to regress individual prices onto several variables such as appearance, duration, and location using an hedonic pricing model and find that prostitutes in London earn significantly more than those in other parts of the UK. (Check out that paper if you want to see which physical/etc. features correlate with higher or lower prices of male prostitutes in the UK.)

Societal Costs and Surprising Benefits

First, there’s the obvious and often-argued link between prostitution and drug markets. See the end of this section for that.
There is still much to be said about the relationship between prostitution and the environment. For instance, common intuition tells us that adult businesses, especially illicit ones, will lower property values, but survey data and spatial regression analysis shows that this may not always be the case. Hubbard et al. (2013) find that those living in close proximity to a commercial sex establishment in New South Wales, Australia report “few negative impacts on local amenity or quality of life, with distance from a premise being a poor predictor of residents’ experiences of nuisance” (p. 1). Bastiaens (2007) applies a classic monocentric city model to land values in New York City from 1867-1876 and finds that the working-class, immigrant enclaves of Bleecker and Washington Square were disamenities while the Tenderloin, also a middle-class shopping center by day, was an amenity. From these studies, the purported negative externalities associated with the development of historical and modern urban sex markets are, at best, ambiguous, although there is much work to be done on this topic.
As many might be aware, prostitution is actually legal in all counties of Nevada other than Las Vegas. Prostitutes in Nevada may work in heavily-regulated brothels and are required to have frequent medical exams. I believe they are also given security and legal protections just like any other laborer in the state. My memory is fuzzy on this topic, but the book to consult on this issue is a very comprehensive and theoretical study, The Economics of Prostitution by Helen Reynolds (1986). Link. More recent work on prostitution in Nevada can be found via Google. Surprisingly, I’ve found few economic studies on the topic in EconLit.
Prostitution is also legal in the Netherlands, but again, I don’t have many studies on that area, ironically enough. Several developing countries also tolerate prostitution (see below).
Finally, the issues of human trafficking and child prostitution deserve brief mention, as the operation of these markets are often directly related to the operation of the market for adult commercial sex and sex tourism. Trafficking refers to the coercion of people into joining the sex sector. Some scholars have shown legalized prostitution to be related to higher rates of trafficking (Cho et al., 2013; Jakobsson and Kotsadam, 2013), although others contend this finding (Lee and Persson, 2012). Economists are less likely to study child prostitution (see Lim 1998 for a policy-centric overview), and there is room for study of this practice which may be promoted by the existence of adult prostitution.
Both of these practices may be seen as externalities of the commercial sex market in addition to linkages to crime and drug use (Logan and Leukefeld, 1999; May et al., 1999) and the spread of disease (Rao et al., 2009).

Demand

There has been relatively little research on the demand side of illicit sex markets. Evidence both quantitative and qualitative is lacking, likely due to the fact that johns are paying for secrecy, among other things, when they employ the services of sex workers. As such, willing participants for case studies and surveys must be harder to come by than sex workers who may see a potential benefit in publicizing the details of their trade.
There are two particularly noteworthy studies that have contributed significantly to the field by studying the demand side of commercial sex. Cameron and Collins (2003) use a unique national survey of sexual behavior in the UK to estimate a model for the choice by heterosexual males to consume commercial sex at the margin. They find that risk of disease has a significant deterrent effect, while engaging in other risky behaviors (such as smoking) and belonging to a sexually restrictive religion have a significantly positive effect on the likelihood one has paid for sex in this sample. Roberts, Jr. and Brewer (2006) use a capture-recapture method based on records of arrest of male clients in Vancouver to estimate the size of the male clientele in the commercial sex market and also find evidence of severe underreporting of encounters with prostitutes by men.

Conclusion

Okay, so I’ve given you a big stream-of-consciousness wall of text on prostitution without commenting on laws or legality issues. I also haven’t covered the feminist debates surrounding prostitution, both for the sake of brevity and the fact that that is beyond the scope of my work and this post. A good article on the feminist debates surrounding prostitution is Kissil and Davey (2010), here. Key issue: “While feminist scholars agree that inequality within patriarchal hierarchy is the core problem in prostitution, they have been polarized about whether classist or sexist inequality is the primary issue and consequently, on viewing the prostitute as either a coerced victim or an entrepreneur.”
Anyway, I suppose some of the standard arguments for drug legalization could and would be made for prostitution legalization: Legality would bring labor protections and bankrupt the abusive pimps and johns, the public health issues could be addressed, personal freedom would be facilitated (assuming prostitutes are merely entrepreneurs and not coerced), etc. The economic literature applies the same basic rational choice and pricing models to sex markets, and they find that the risk and individual costs of prostitution are compensated by the price premium. Often, this is a welcome alternative to the formal labor market given an individual’s skill set.
As we’ve seen, there are a few negative and a few possible positive externalities associated with prostitution, most of which can probably be internalized except for the possible link between legal or tolerated prostitution and human trafficking. If the link exists (which some studies contest), then I can only see the solution being a devotion of our excess policing resources to preventing human trafficking after we legalize.

General Interest Book

I recommend Economics Uncut for its chapters on prostitution.

References

Bastiaens, I. (2007). Is Selling Sex Good Business? : Prostitution in Nineteenth Century New York City. Undergraduate Economic Review, 3(1). http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/uevol3/iss1/8.
Benson, C. and R. Matthews (1995) ‘Street Prostitution: Ten Facts in Search of a Policy,’ International Journal of the Sociology of Law 23: 395–415.
Bowmaker, Simon. Economics Uncut
Cameron, S., & Collins, A. (2003). Estimates of a model of male participation in the market for female heterosexual prostitution services. European Journal of Law and Economics, 16(3), 271-288.
Cameron, S., Collins, A., & Neill, T. (1999). Prostitution services: An exploratory empirical analysis. Applied Economics, 31(12), 1523-1529.
Cho, S., Dreher, A., & Neumayer, E. (2013). Does legalized prostitution increase human trafficking? World Development, 41(1), 67-82.
Edlund, L., & Korn, E. (2002). A theory of prostitution. Journal of Political Economy, 110(1), 181-214.
Edlund, L., Engelberg, J., & Parsons, C. A. (2009). The wages of sin. Unpublished manuscript. http://www.econ.columbia.edu/RePEc/pdf/DP0809-16.pdf.
Hubbard, P., Boydell, S., Crofts, P., Prior, J., & Searle, G. (2013). Noxious neighbours? interrogating the impacts of sex premises in residential areas. Environment and Planning A, 45(1), 126-141.
Jakobsson, N.., & Kotsadam, A. (2013). The law and economics of international sex slavery: Prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation. European Journal of Law and Economics, 35(1), 87-107.
Kissil and Davey (2010), here.
Lee, S., & Persson, P. (2012). Human trafficking and regulating prostitution. Unpublished manuscript. Levitt, Steven & Sudhir Venkatesh. (2007). An Empirical Analysis of Street-Level Prostitution. Unpublished. http://economics.uchicago.edu/pdf/Prostitution%205.pdf
Lim, L. L., ed. (1998). The sex sector: The economic and social bases of prostitution in southeast asia. Geneva:; International Labour Office; distributed by ILO Publications Center, Waldorf, Md.
Logan, T., & Leukefeld, C. (1999). HIV risk behavior and drug use among heterosexual male crack users by prostitution involvement. Population Research and Policy Review, 18(1-2), 23-38.
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Moffatt, P. G., & Peters, S. A. (2004). Pricing personal services: An empirical study of earnings in the UK prostitution industry. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 51(5), 675-690.
Potterat, J. J., Muth, S. O., Woodhouse, D. E., Muth, J. B., Stites, H. K., Brewer, D.D., Brody, S. (2004). Mortality in a long-term open cohort of prostitute women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 159(8), 778-785.
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2014.03.19 10:43 Toffai What to do with my budd in trial

Hi, i am playing for a month and two weeks and i could convince my buddy to test the trial.
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